• P. Calow


Absorbed energy is partitioned between two major pathways: synthesis (processes involved with building and replacing the tissues) and respiratory metabolism (Figure 3.1)., The latter transfers some of the chemical, potential energy in food to high-energy, phosphate bonds (~P) usually in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, and these, or at least the energy that they store, are then used to power mechanical work (e.g. muscular contraction), chemical work (e.g. active transport) and synthesis itself. Before proceeding, however, the reader should observe some caution on terminology. ‘High energy phosphate bond’ does not refer to the bond energy of the covalent linkage between the phosphorus atom and the rest of the molecule. The phosphate bond energy is not localised but is a reflection of the energy content of the whole triphosphate molecule before and after its conversion to a diphosphate. The phrase ‘high energy phosphate bond’ is, nevertheless, widespread and will be used in what follows as a convenient shorthand.


Oxygen Uptake Coelomic Fluid Routine Metabolic Rate Respiratory Surface Phosphate Bond 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alderice, D.F. (1972). Factor combinations. In: Kinne, O. (ed.) Marine Ecology, vol. I ( 3 ). Wiley Interscience; LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Bayne, B.L. and Scullard, C. (1977). An apparent specific dynamic action in Mytilus edulis L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 57, 371–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bayne, B.L., Thompson, R.J. and Widdows, J. (1976). Physiology 1. In: Bayne, B.L. (ed.) Marine Mussels: Their Ecology and Physiology. Cambridge University Press; CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. Brody, S. (1945). Bioenergetics and Growth. Hafner; New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Calow, P. (1975). The respiratory strategies of two species of freshwater gastropods (Ancylus fluviatilis Muller and Planorbis contortus Linn.) relative to temperature, oxygen concentration, body size and season. Physiological Zoology, 48, 114–29Google Scholar
  6. Conover, R.J. (1956). Oceanography of Long Island Sound 1952–5. VI Biology of Arcatia clausi and A. tonsa. Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanography College, 15, 156–233Google Scholar
  7. Dame, R.F. and Vernberg, F.J. (1978). The influence of constant and cyclic acclimation temperatures on the metabolic rates of Panopeus herbstii and Uca pugilator. Biological Bulletin, 154, 188–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davies, P.S. (1966). Physiological ecology of Patella I. The effect of body size and temperature on metabolic rate. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 46, 647–58Google Scholar
  9. Davies, P.S. and Tribe, N.A. (1969). Temperature dependence of metabolic rate in animals. Nature (London), 224, 72–34Google Scholar
  10. Dejours, P. (1981). Principles of Comparative Respiratory Physiology. 2nd edn Elsevier/North Holland Publishing Co.; AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  11. Denny, M. (1980) Locomotion: the cost of gastropod crawling. Science, 208, 1288–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ellenby, C. (1953). Oxygen consumption and cell size. A comparison of the rate of oxygen consumption of diploid and triploid prepupae of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. Journal of Experimental Biology, 30, 475–91Google Scholar
  13. Fry, F.E.J. (1958). Temperature compensation. Annual Review of Physiology, 20, 207–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Halcrow, K. and Boyd, C.M. (1967). The oxygen consumption and swimming activity of the amphipod Gammarus oceanicus at different temperatures. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 23, 23342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hemmingsen, A.M. (1960). Energy metabolism as related to bodysize and respiratory surfaces and its evolution. Reports of the Steno Memorial Hospital and the Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium, 9, 1–110Google Scholar
  16. Hochachka, P.W. (1976). Design of metabolic and enzyme machinery to fit lifestyle and environment. Biochemical Society Symposium, 41, 3–31Google Scholar
  17. Hochachka, P.W. (1980). Living Without Oxygen; Closed and Open Systems in Hypoxia Tolerance. Harvard University Press; Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  18. Hochachka, P.W. and Somero, G.N. (1973). Strategies of Biochemical Adaptation. W.B. Saunders; PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Hughes, C.M. and Shelton, G. (1962). Respiratory mechanisms and their nervous control in fish. Advances in Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, 1, 275–364Google Scholar
  20. Jones, D.R. (1971). Theoretical analysis of factors which may limit the maximum oxygen uptake of fish. The oxygen cost of the cardiac and branchial pumps. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 32, 341–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones, J.D. (1972). Comparative Physiology of Respiration. Edward Arnold; LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Krogh, A. (1941). The Comparative Physiology of Respiratory Mechanisms. University of Pennsylvania Press; PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  23. Krogh, A. and Weis-Fogh, T. (1951). The respiratory exchange of the desert Locust (Schistocer-a gregaria) before, during and after flight. Journal of Experimental Biology, 28, 344–57Google Scholar
  24. Lehninger, A.L. (1973). Bioenergetics. W.A. Benjamin; Menlo Park, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  25. Marshall, S.M., Nichols, A.G. and Orr, A.P. (1934). On the biology of Calanus finmarchicus. Part VI. Oxygen consumption in relation to environmental conditions. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 20, 1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mason, C.F. (1971). Respiration rates and population metabolism in woodland snails. Oecologia, 7, 80–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mitchell, H.H. (1962). Comparative Nutrition of Man and Domestic Animals. Academic Press; New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Nelson, S.G., Knight, A.W. and Li, H.W. (1977). The metabolic cost of food utilization and ammonia production by juvenile Macro brachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 57A, 67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Newell, R.C. (1970). Biology of Intertidal Animals. Logos Press; LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Newell, R.C. and Pye, V.I. (1971). Variations in the relationship between oxygen consumption, body size and summated tissue metabolism in the winkle Littorina littorea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 51, 315–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parry, G.D. (1978). Effects of growth and temperature acclimation on metabolic rate in the limpet Cellana tramoserica (Gastropoda: Patellidae). Journal of Animal Ecology, 47, 351–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Phillipson, J. (1981). Bioenergetic options and phylogeny. In: Townsend, C.R. and Calow, P. (eds.) Physiological Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach to Resource Use, Blackwells; OxfordGoogle Scholar
  33. Precht, H. (1958). Concepts of temperature adaptation of unchanging reaction systems of cold-blooded animals. In: Prosser, C.L. (ed.) Physiological Adaptation. Ronald Press; New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Prosser, C.L. (1973). Comparative Animal Physiology. 3rd edn. W.B. Saunders; PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Richman, S. (1958). The transformation of energy by Daphnia pulex. Ecological Monographs, 28, 273–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Weis-Fogh, T. (1954). Fat combustion and the metabolic rate of flying locusts (Schistocerca gregaria Fenskal). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 237, 1–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wigglesworth, V.B. (1974). Insect Physiology. Chapman and Hall; LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Zeuthen, E. (1970). Rate of living as related to body size in organisms. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii, 17, 21–30Google Scholar
  39. Zwaan, A. de. and Wijsman, T.C.M. (1976). Anaerobic metabolism in Bivalvia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 54B, 313–24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© P. Calow 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Calow

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations