Cyanidation of Gold Ores

  • J. C. Yannopoulos


Alchemists—driven by greed and curiosity—did not manage to produce gold from cheap materials, but they certainly initiated and advanced chemical knowledge. The discovery of aqua regia by the Arab alchemist Jabir Ibn Hayyan in the sixth century introduced a chemical technology for the extraction of gold from its ores.


Potassium Cyanide Cyanide Solution Cyanide Concentration Gold Dissolution Gold Cyanidation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ashurst, K G., and N. P. Finkelstein. 1970. The influence of sulphydryl and cationic flotation reagents on the flotation of native gold. J. S. Afr. I.M.M. (70): 243–58.Google Scholar
  2. Barsky, G., S. J. Swanson, and N. Hedley. 1934. Dissolution of gold and silver in cyanide solution. Trans. A.I.M.E. (112): 660–77.Google Scholar
  3. Bodlander, G. 1896. Die chemie des cyanidverfahrens. Z. Angew. Chem. (9): 583–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boonstra, B. 1943. Uber die losungsgeschwindigkeit von gold in kalium cyanid-losungen. Korros. Metallschutz (19): 146–51.Google Scholar
  5. Christy, S. B. 1896. The solution and precipitation of the cyanide of gold. Trans. A.I.M.E. (26): 735–72.Google Scholar
  6. Cornejo, L. M., and D. J. Spottiswood. 1984. Fundamental aspects of the gold cyanidation process: A review. In Mineral amp; Energy Resources, Colorado School of Mines.Google Scholar
  7. Deitz, G. A., and J. Halpern. 1953. Reaction of silver with aqueous solutions of cyanide and oxygen. J. Met. (5): 1109–16.Google Scholar
  8. Dewhirst, R. F., S. P. Maulf, and J. A. Coetzee. 1984. Intensive cyanidation for the recovery of coarse gold. J. S. Afr. LM.M. 84 (6): 159–63.Google Scholar
  9. Dorey, R., D. van Zyl, and J. Kiel. 1988. Overview of heap leaching technology. In Introduction to Evaluation, Design and Operation of Precious Metal Heap Leaching Projects, edited by D. van Zyl, et al.: 6.Google Scholar
  10. Dorr, J. V. N., and F. L. Bosqui. 1950. Cyanidation and Concentration of Gold and Silver Ores. New York: McGraw-Hill, 238–78.Google Scholar
  11. Elsner, L. 1846. Uber das verhalten verschredener metalle in einer brigen losung von cyankalium. J. Prakt. Chem. (37): 441–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fink, C. G., and G. L. Putnam. 1950. The action of sulphide ion and of metal salts on the dissolution of gold in cyanide solutions. Trans. S.M.E. A.I.M.E. (187): 952–55.Google Scholar
  13. Finkelstein, N. P. 1972. The chemistry of gold compounds. In Gold Metallurgy in South Africa, edited by R. J. Adamson. Johannesburg: Chamber of Mines of S. Mr., 285–320.Google Scholar
  14. GEMS (Golgonda Engineering & Mining Services). 1988. New process regenerates cyanide from gold and silver leach liquors. Eng. Min. J., June: 55.Google Scholar
  15. Habashi, F. 1967. Kinetics and mechanism of gold and silver dissolution in cyanide solution. Bulletin 59. Butte, MT: Montana Bureau Mines and Geology.Google Scholar
  16. Habashi, F. 1987. One hundred years of cyanidation. C.I.M. Bull. 80 (905): 108–14.Google Scholar
  17. Hallett, C. J., A. J. Mohemius, and D. G. C. Robertson. 1981. Oxygen mass transfer in Pachuca tanks. In Extraction Metallurgy 81. London: I.M.M., 21–23.Google Scholar
  18. Janin, L., Jr. 1888. Cyanide of potassium as a lixiviant agent for silver ores and minerals. Eng. Min. J. (46): 548–49.Google Scholar
  19. Janin, L., Jr. 1892. The cyanide process. Mineral Industry (1): 239–72.Google Scholar
  20. Julian, H. F., and E. Smart 1921. Cyanidation of Gold and Silver Ores. London: Griffin.Google Scholar
  21. Kakovski, I. A., and A. N. Levedev. 1960. The influence of surface-active materials on the rate of dissolution of gold in cyanide solutions. Doklady Physical Chemistry (164): 686–89.Google Scholar
  22. MacArthur, J. S., R. W. Forrest, and W. Forrest. 1887/1889. Process obtaining gold and silver from ores. Brit. Patent 14174 (1887); U.S. Patent 403,202 (1889); U.S. Patent 418, 137 (1889).Google Scholar
  23. Mellor, J. W. 1923. Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry: Longmans, New York, vol. 3, p. 499.Google Scholar
  24. Pietsch, H. B., W. Turke, and E. Bareuther. 1983a. Leaching of gold and silver. German Patent DE3126234.Google Scholar
  25. Pietsch, H. B., W. Turke, and G. H. Rathje, 1983b. Research on pressure leaching of ores containing precious metals. Erzmetall: 261–65.Google Scholar
  26. Randol. 1988. Vitox installation in an air-agitated tank. Randol Gold Forum 88. Golden, CO: Randol International Ltd., 192.Google Scholar
  27. Xue, T., and K. Osseo-Assare. 1985. Heterogeneous equilibria in the Au-CN-H2O and Ag-CN-H2O systems. Metal. Trans. B (16B): 455–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Yannopoulos

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations