Prevention and Control

  • Thomas Butler
Part of the Current Topics in Infectious Disease book series (CTID)


The epidemic and fatal nature of plague infection has stimulated enormous efforts by public health workers to seek effective control measures against this disease. Plague is today one of only four internationally quarantinable diseases, along with cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever. Although plague is relatively well controlled today, being restricted in human cases to less than 1000 per year in all countries except Vietnam and Burma, the disease has the potential for rapid expansion from the endemic foci that exist in many countries. Public health workers in all such countries, as well as the World Health Organization (WHO), keep constant vigilance over the plague incidence in the world, ever fearful that new outbreaks will occur that will be difficult to control.


Live Vaccine Pasteur Institute Yersinia Enterocolitica Yersinia Pestis Public Health Worker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    World Health Organization Informal Consultation on plague surveillance and control (Geneva, June, 1979) plague surveillance and control, W.H.O. Chronicle 34: 139–143 (1980).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. W. Willeberg, R. Ruppanner, D. E. Behymer, H. H. Higa, C. E. Franti, R. A. Thompson, and B. Bohannan, Epidemiologie survey of sylvatic plague by serotesting coyote sentinels with enzyme immunoassay, Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 328–334 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. C. Cavanaugh, B. D. Thorpe, J. B. Bushman, P. S. Nicholes, and J. H. Rust, Detection of an enzootic plague focus by serological methods, Bull. W.H.O. 32: 197–203 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. E. Brooks, P. T. Htun, and H. Naing, The susceptibility of Bandicota bengalensis from Rangoon, Burma, to several anticoagulant rodenticides, J. Hyg. 84: 127–135 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. E. Brooks and P. T. Htun, Laboratory evaluation of scilliroside used as a rodenticide against the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis, J. Hyg. 85: 227–234, (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5a.
    J. M. Mann, W. J. Martone, J. M. Boyce, A. F. Kaufman, A. M. Barnes, and N. S. Weber, Endemic human plague in New Mexico: Risk factors associated with acquisition of infection, J. Infect. Dis. 140: 397–401 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    K. F. Meyer, Effectiveness of live or killed plague vaccines in man. Bull. W.H.O. 42: 653–666 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    K. F. Meyer, D. C. Cavanaugh, P. J. Bartelloni, and J. D. Marshall. Plage immunization I. Past and present trends, J. Infect. Dis. 129 (Suppl.): 513–518 (1974).Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    D. C. Cavanaugh, B. L. Elisberg, C. H. Llewellyn, J. D. Marshall, J. H. Rust, J. E. Williams, and K. F. Meyer, Plague immunization V. Indirect evidence for the efficacy of plague vaccine, J. Infect. Dis. 129 (Suppl): 537–540 (1974).Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    N. V. Liem and M. Jullien, Present status of plague vaccine and its problems, Symposium on Plague, Saigon, Vietnam (1970).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    T. Butler and B. W. Hudson, The serological response to Yersinia pestis infection, Bull. W.H.O. 55: 39–42 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Plague vaccine, Morbidity and Morality, Weekly Report 31: 301–304 (1982).Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    J. E. Williams and D. C. Cavanaugh, Measuring the efficacy of vaccination in affording protection against plague, Bull. W.H.O. 57 (2): 309–313 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    T. H. Chen, S. S. Elberg, and D. M. Eisler, Immunity in plague: Protection of the vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) against pneumonic plague by oral administration of live attenuated Yersinia pestis, J. Infect. Dis. 135: 289–293 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    J. M. Alonso, B. Hurtrel, D. Mazigh, M. A. Chalvignac, and H. H. Mollaret, Temperature-modulated immunogenicity to Yersinia pestis from Yersinia enterocolitica 03, Infect. Immun. 36: 423–425 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    E. Jawetz and K. F. Meyer, Studies on plague immunity in experimental animals II. Some factors of the immunity mechanism in bubonic plague, J. Immunol. 49: 15–30 (1944).Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    J. F. Wong and S. S. Elberg, Cellular immune response to Yersinia pestis modulated by products from thymus-derived lymphocytes, J. Infect. Dis. 135: 67–78 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    A. Wake, H. Morita, and M. Wake, Mechanisms of long-and short-term immunity to plague, Immunology 34: 1045–1052 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    F. Fenner, Global eradication of smallpox. Rev. Infect. Dis. 4: 916–922 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    M. P. Doyle, M. B. Hugdahl, and S. L. Taylor, Isolation of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica from porcine tongues, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42: 661–666 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    A. R. Samadi, K. Wachsmuth, M. I. Hug, M. Mahbub, and D. E. Agbonlahor, An attempt to detect Yersinia enterocolitica in Dacca, Bangladesh, Trop. Geogr. Med. 34: 151–154 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Multi-state outbreak of yersiniosis, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 31: 505–506 (1982).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    D. W. Francis, P. L. Spaulding, J. Lovett, Enterotoxin production and thermal resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica in milk, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40: 174–176 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    D. Hughes, Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica from milk and a dairy in Australia, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 46: 125–130 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    M. J. Corbel, Stimulation of protective immunity to Salmonella Kauffman-White group N serotypes by Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica antigens, Br. Vet. J. 131: 625–626 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Butler
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.International Center for Diarrhoeal ResearchDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations