Advertisement

Thermal process flavourings

  • C. G. May

Abstract

‘Reaction’ or ‘thermal process’ flavouring is a comparatively recent term given to a food flavouring which is produced by heating together two or more ‘precursors’ under carefully controlled conditions. If desired, other flavouring materials may be added after the reaction to make a composite blended flavouring. The precursors may have little flavour in themselves, this being developed or produced by a process analogous to that used for the cooking of everyday foods. Since their introduction to the food industry, these products have become widely known as ‘reaction’ flavourings. More recently, various legislative bodies have adopted the name ‘thermal process’ or ‘process’ flavouring. However, ‘process’ flavouring has on occasions been used to describe also some flavourings produced by enzyme reactions and/or microbiological processes, so for clarity the full term ‘thermal process’ flavouring is more desirable.

Keywords

Protein Hydrolysate Maillard Reaction Hydrogen Sulphide Monosodium Glutamate Aroma Volatile 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Official Journal of the European Communities. L. 18431 (1988) 62.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.A. Boyer, U.S. Paten 2,682,466 (1954)Google Scholar
  3. R.A. Boyer, British Patent 699, 692 (1953).Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    E.C. Crocker, Food Res. 13 (1984) 179.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    C.G. May, Food Trade Rev. 44 (1974) 7.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    I.D. Morton, P. Akroyd and C.G. May, British Patent 836, 694 (1960);Google Scholar
  7. C.G. May and P. Akroyd, British Patent 855, 350 (1960);Google Scholar
  8. C.G. May, British Patent 858, 333 (1961);Google Scholar
  9. C.G. May and I.D. Morton, British Patent 858, 660 (1961).Google Scholar
  10. 6.
    L.C. Maillard, Compt. Rend. 154 (1912) 66.Google Scholar
  11. 7.
    C. Eriksson, ed., in Progress in Food and Nutrition Science, Vol. 5, Pergamon, Oxford (1981) p. 1;Google Scholar
  12. G.R. Waller and M.S. Feather eds., in ACS Symp. 215, ACS Washington (1983);Google Scholar
  13. M. Fujimaki, M. Namiki and H. Kato, eds., in Developments in Food Science, Vol. 13, Elsevier, Amesterdam (1986).Google Scholar
  14. 8.
    T.M. Reynolds, Food Technol. Aust. 22 (1970) 610;Google Scholar
  15. R. Tressl and R. Renner, Dtsch. Lebensm. Rundsch. 72 (1976) 37;Google Scholar
  16. R. Tressl, Monatsschr. Brau 32 (1979) 240;Google Scholar
  17. W. Baltes, Lebensmittelchemic Gerichtl. Chemie 34 (1980) 39;Google Scholar
  18. R.F. Hurrel, in Food Flavours, part A, eds. I.D. Morton and A.J. MacLeod, Developments in Food Science, Vol. 3A, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1982) p. 399;Google Scholar
  19. L.L. Buckholz, Cereal Foods World 33 (1988) 547;Google Scholar
  20. H.E. Nursten, Food Chem. 6 (1981) 263;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. H.E. Nursten, in Developments in Food Flavours, eds. G.G. Birch and M.G. Lindley, Elsevier, London (1987) p. 173.Google Scholar
  22. 9.
    T.F. Stewart, Scientific and Technical Survey No. 61, Leatherhead Food R.A. (1969).Google Scholar
  23. 10.
    J.E. Hodge, J. Agric. Food Chem. 1 (1953) 928;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. J.E. Hodge, in Chemistry and Physiology of Flavors, eds. H.W. Schultz, E.A. Day and L.M. Libbey, AVI Westport, CT (1967) p. 465.Google Scholar
  25. 11.
    Proceedings of Seventh World Congress of Science and Technology, in Trends in Food Science, part 1, eds. W.S. Lien and C.W. Foo, Singapore Inst. Food Sci. Tech. (1989) P. 3.Google Scholar
  26. 12.
    J.M. Ames, Chem. Ind. (1988) 558.Google Scholar
  27. 13.
    C.H.T. Tonsbeek, A.J. Plancken and T. v.d. Weerdhof, J. Agric. Food Chem. 16 (1968) 1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 14.
    S.S. Chang, C. Hirai, B.R. Reddy, K.O. Hertz, A. Kato and G. Simpa, Chem. Ind. (1968) 1639.Google Scholar
  29. 15.
    H.W. Brinkman, H. Copier, J.J.M. de Leuw and S.B. Tjan. J. Agric. Food Chem. 20 (1972) 177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 16.
    G. MacLeod, M. Seyyedain-Ardebili, CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 14 (4) (1981) 309;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. K.O. Herz and S.S. Chang, Adv. Food Res. 18 (1970) 1;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. B.K. Dwivedi, CRC Crit. Rev. Food Technol. 5 (1975) 487;Google Scholar
  33. G. Ohloff and I. Flament, Prog. Chem. Org. Nat. Prod. 36 (1978) 231.Google Scholar
  34. 17.
    G. MacLeod in Developments in Food Flavours, eds. G.G. Birch and M.G. Lindley, Elsevier, London (1986).Google Scholar
  35. 18.
    A. Hobson-Frohock, J. Sci. Food. Agric. 21 (1970) 152;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. A.E. Wasserman, J. Agric. Food Chem. 20 (1972) 737;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. R.A. Wilson and I. Katz, J. Agric. Food Chem. 20 (1972) 741;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. C.G. Janney, K.K. Hale and H.C. Higman, Poultry Sci. 53 (1974) 1758;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. R.J. Horvat, J. Agric. Food Chem. 24 (1976) 953;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. H.S. Ramaswamy and J.F. Richards, Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 15(1982)7;Google Scholar
  41. J. Tang. Q.Z. Jin, G.-H. Shen. C.-T. Ho and S.S. Chang, J. Agric. Food Chem. 31 (1983) 1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 19.
    V.M. Gorbatov and Y.N. Lyaskovskaya, Meat Sci. 4 (1980) 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 20.
    C.-T. Ho, K.N. Lee and Q.Z. Jin, J. Agric. Food Chem. 31 (1983) 336;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. C.K. Shu, B.D. Mookherjee and M.H. Vock, U.S. Patent 4, 234, 616 (1980);Google Scholar
  45. C.K. Shu, B.D. Mookherjee, H.A. Bondarovich and M.L. Hagedorn, J. Agric. Food Chem. 33 (1985) 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 21.
    R.J. Park, K.F. Murray and G. Stanley, Chem. Ind. (1974) 380;Google Scholar
  47. R.G. Buttery, L.C. Ling, R. Teranishi and T.R. Mon, J. Agric. Food Chem. 25 (1977) 1227;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. D.A. Cramer, Food Technol. 37 (1983) 249;Google Scholar
  49. L.N. Nixon, E. Wong, C.B. Johnson and E.J. Birch, J. Agric. Food Chem. 27 (1979) 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 22.
    Y. Zhang, M. Chien and C.-T. Ho, J. Agric. Food Chem. 36 (1988) 992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 23.
    J.L. Godman and D.R.D. Osborne, British Patent 1, 285, 568 (1972).Google Scholar
  52. 24.
    G.A.M. v.d. Ouweland and H.G. Peer, British Patent 1, 283, 913 (1972).Google Scholar
  53. 25.
    G.A.M. v.d. Ouweland and H.G. Peer, J. Agric. Food Chem. 23 (1975) 501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 26.
    T. Wieland and H. Wiegandt, Angew. Chem. 67 (1955) 399;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. H Brockmann and B. Franck, Angew. Chem. 67 (1955) 303;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. A. Niewiarowics and H. Weislo, Przemysl Spozywizy 11 (1957) 217;Google Scholar
  57. A. Niewiarowics and H. Weislo, Chem. Zentralblatt. 129 (1958) 8777.Google Scholar
  58. 27.
    H. Sulser, J. DePizzol and W. Büchi, J. Food Sci. 32 (1967) 611;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. C.H. Manley and I.S. Fagerson, J. Food Sci. 35 (1970) 286;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. C.H. Manley and I.S. Fagerson, J. Agric. Food Chem. 18 (1970) 340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 28.
    K. Prendergast, Food Trade Rev. 44 (1974) 14.Google Scholar
  62. 29.
    C.G. May and C.J. Soeters, British Patent, 1, 130, 631 (1968).Google Scholar
  63. 30.
    R.A. Lawrie, Food Flavour Ingred. Proc. Pack. 4 (1982) 11.Google Scholar
  64. 31.
    P.D. Harkes and W.J. Begemann, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 51 (1974) 356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 32.
    W.J. Begemann and P.D. Harkes, U.S. Patent 3,821, 421 (1974).Google Scholar
  66. 33.
    D.A. VanDorp, P. Akroyd and L. Mindt, British Patent 1, 034, 352 (1966).Google Scholar
  67. 34.
    C.J. Mussinan, C. Giacino and J.P. Walradt, U.S. Patent 3,876, 809 (1975).Google Scholar
  68. 35.
    I. Katz, R.A. Wilson and C. Giacino, U.S. Patent 3,681, 088 (1972).Google Scholar
  69. 36.
    R.A. Wilson, M.H. Vock, I. Katz and E.J. Shuster, British Patent 1, 364, 747 (1974).Google Scholar
  70. 37.
    P.A.T. Swoboda, AGFD 80, 160th ACS Meeting, Chicago (1970).Google Scholar
  71. 38.
    I. Noleau and B. Toulemonde, Lebensm. -Wiss. Technol. 21 (1988) 195.Google Scholar
  72. 39.
    G. Giacino U.S. Patent 3,394,015 (1968)Google Scholar
  73. G. Giacino U.S. Patent 3,519, 437 (1970).Google Scholar
  74. 40.
    C.K. Shu, B.D. Mookherjee, H.A. Bondarovich and M.L. Hagedorn, J. Agric. Food Chem. 33 (1985) 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 41.
    J.R. Feldman and J.H. Berg, U.S. Patent 3,803, 330 (1974).Google Scholar
  76. 42.
    E. Wong, L.N. Nixon and C.B. Johnson, J. Agric. Food Chem. 23 (1975) 495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 43.
    L.N. Nixon, E. Wong, C.B. Johnson and E.J. Birch, J. Agric. Food Chem. 27 (1979) 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 44.
    R.G. Buttery, L.C. Ling, R. Teranishi and T.R. Mon, J. Agric. Food Chem. 25 (1977) 1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 45.
    F. Caporaso, J.D. Sink, P.S. Dimick, C.J. Mussinan and A. Sanderson, J. Agric. Food Chem. 25 (1977) 1230;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. D.A. Cramer, Food Technol. 37 (1983) 249.Google Scholar
  81. 46.
    H.B. Heath, in Source Book of Flavors, AVI, Westport, CT (1981).Google Scholar
  82. 47.
    E. Guenther, in The Essential Oils,Vols. I-VI, D. Van Nostrand, New York (1948–1952).Google Scholar
  83. 48.
    J. Velisek, J. Davidek, J. Hajslovâ, V. Kubelka, G. Janicek and B. Mânkovâ, Z. Lebensm. -Unters Forsch. 167 (1978) 241;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. J. Velisek, J. Davidek, V. Kubelka, J. Bartosovâ. A. Tuckovâ, J. Hajslovâ and G. Janicek, Lebensm -Wiss, Technol. 12 (1979) 234;Google Scholar
  85. J. Velísék, J. Davidek, V. Kubelka, G. Janicek, Z. Svobodova and Z. Simicovâ, J. Agric. Food Chem. 28 (1980) 1142;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. J. Davídek, J. Velisek, V. Kubelka, G. Janicek and Z. Simicovâ, Z. Lebensm. -Unters Forsch. 171 (1980) 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 49.
    Federal Health Authority (Bundesgesundheitsamt) of W. Germany 1984, Bestimmung von 1,3-dichloropropanol u. Verband der Suppenindustrie.Google Scholar
  88. 50.
    D. Chase, Food Flavour Ingred. Proc. Pack. 11 (1989) 67.Google Scholar
  89. 51.
    Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Protein Hydrolysates as Food Ingredients, SCOGS, Life Sciences Research Office, Fed. Amer. Soc. for Exptl. Biol., Maryland (1978).Google Scholar
  90. 52.
    A.J. Miller, Food Technol. 39 (1985) 75.Google Scholar
  91. 53.
    M. Scheutwinkel-Reich, G. Reese and W. v.d. Hude, Z. Lebensm. -Unters Forsch. 180 (1985) 207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 54.
    W.D. Powri, C.H. Wu and H.F. Stich, in Carcinogens and Mutations in the Environment, ed. H.F. Stich, CRC Press, Florida (1983) p. 121.Google Scholar
  93. 55.
    Council of Europe, 2nd Internat. Consultation of Flavours, Strasbourg, 27–28th April, 1989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. G. May

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations