Physical Mechanisms for Biological Effects of Ultrasound at Low-Intensity Levels
Much of the recent increased interest in bioeffects of ultrasound stems from the astounding success of ultrasound in diagnostic medicine. Because it is so widely used in examining pregnancies, it is now to be expected that much of the future population of the world will have been exposed to ultrasound before birth. As the societal impact of any environmental agent increases, so does public concern about its safety. Hence it is not surprising that questions are being raised from various quarters about possible risks from medical ultrasound, even though its safety record is excellent. It is necessary to respond to these questions now, and continuously, although most of us would very likely prefer to have more knowledge before passing judgements. In order to respond, a number of individuals and groups have turned to the scientific literature for help and have sought to form conclusions based on the published data. In Fig. 1. is a generalization arrived at by the Bioeffects Committee of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM). It was approved by the AIUM in 1976 and again, slightly revised, in 1978.
KeywordsMedical Ultrasound Diagnostic Medicine Frequency Sound Wave Exposure Quantity High Frequency Sound Wave
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.AIUM Bioeffects Committee, brochure entitled “Who’s Afraid of of a Hundred Milliwatts per Square Centimeter?” available from American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, 4405 East-West Highway, Suite 504, Washington, D.C. 20014.Google Scholar
- 9.D. Liebesking, R. Bases, F. Elequin, S. Neubort, R. Leifer, R. Goldberg and. M. Kuenigsberg, Diagnostic ultrasound: effects on the DNA and growth patterns of animal cells, Radiology 131: 177–184 (1979).Google Scholar
- 10.W.L. Nyborg, A. Gerhoy and D.L. Miller, Interaction of ultrasound with simple biological systems, pp. 19127 in “Ultrasonics International 1977 Conference Proceedings”, IPC Science and Technology Press Ltd, Guildford, England.Google Scholar
- 12.W.L. Nyborg, “Physical Mechanisms for Biological Effects of Ultrasound”, HEW Publications (FDA) 78–8062, Bureau of Radiological Health, Rockville, MD 20857.Google Scholar
- 14.S.Z. Child, E.L. Carstensen and S.K. Lam, Effects of ultrasound on Drosophila: III Exposure of larvae to low-temporal-averageintensity, pulsed irradiation, Ultrasound in Med. and Biol. (1981, in press).Google Scholar