Mineral Nutrition of Oxygen-Stressed Crops and Its Relationship to Some Physiological Responses

  • R. E. Sojka
  • L. H. Stolzy


Historically nutritional studies of anoxic plants have simply catalogued concentration and uptake changes of treated plants, frequently on a non-partitioned whole-plant basis. Major reviews of soil aeration and flooding generally agree that N, P, and K concentrations in plants are reduced by anoxia (Kozlowski, 1984; Glinski and Stepniewski, 1985). Sodium concentration increases and other major elements either remain unaffected or react irregularly. Until recent years explanations of nutritional changes have focused chiefly on alterations in the poorly aerated soil physicochemical environment. Factors such as: increased mineral solubilization, leaching, and dilution in high water content soils, increased water film coverage of roots, altered ion diffusion, solubility changes at altered valence states, altered pH resulting from redox reactions or increased CO2 concentrations, etc. have been used to explain nutritional responses to oxygen-limiting soil environments.


Abscisic Acid Guard Cell Stomatal Closure Nitrogen Deficiency Stomatal Response 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armstrong, W. (1971) Radial oxygen losses from intact rice roots as affected by distances from the apex, respiration and waterlogging. Physiol. Plant, 25, 192–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnon, D.I. (1937) Ammonium and nitrate nitrogen nutrition of barley and at different seasons in relation to hydrogen ion concentrations, manganese, copper, and oxygen supply. Soil Sci., 44, 91–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bejaoui, M. (1980) Effects du NaC1 sur l’elongation, la georeaction et l’absorption d’oxygene de segments apicaux de racines de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Physiol. Veg., 18, 737–47Google Scholar
  4. Bradford, K.J. (1982) Regulation of shoot responses to root stress by ethylene, abscisic acid, and cytokinin. In P.F. Warring Plant growth substances, Academic Press, London, pp. 599–608Google Scholar
  5. Bradford, K.J, (1983) Involvement of plant growth substances in the alteration of leaf gas exchange of flooded tomato plants. Plant Physiol, 73, 480–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradford, K.J. and Yang, S.F. (1981) Physiological responses of plants to waterlogging. HortScience, 16, 25–30Google Scholar
  7. Bryce, J.H., Focht, D.D. and Stolzy, L.H. (1982) Soil aeration and plant growth response to urea peroxide fertilization. Soil Sci., 134, 111–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooper, R.B., Blaser, R.E. and Brown, R.H. (1967) Potassium nutrition effects on net photosynthesis and morphology of alfalfa. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 31, 231–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Das, D.K. and Jat, R.L. (1977) Influence of three soil-water regimes on root porosity and growth of four rice varieties. Agron. J., 69, 197–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drew, M.C. and Dikumwin, E. (1985) Sodium exclusion from the shoots by roots of Zea mays (cv. LG11) and its breakdown with oxygen deficiency. J. Exp. Bot., 36, 55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Drew, M.C., Jackson, M.B. and Gifford, S. (1979) Ethylene-promoted adventitious rooting and development of cortical air spaces (aerenchyma) in roots may be adaptive responses to flooding in Zea mays L. Planta, 147, 83–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Drew, M.C., Jackson, M.B., Gifford, S.C. and Campbell, R. (1981) Inhibition by silver ions of gas space (aerenchyma) formation in adventitious roots of Zea mays L. subjected to exogenous ethylene or to oxygen deficiency. Planta, 153, 217–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Drew, M.C. and Läuchli, A. (1985) Oxygen-dependent exclusion of sodium ions from shoots by roots of Zea mays (cv. Pioneer 3906) in relation to salinity damage. Plant Physiol, 79, 171–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Drew, M.C. and Lynch, J.M. (1980) Soil anaerobiosis, micro-organisms, and root function. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 18, 37–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Drew, M.C. and Sisworo, E.J. (1977) Early effects of flooding on nitrogen deficiency and leaf chlorsis in barley. New Phytol, 79, 567–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Drew, M.C. and Sisworo, E.J. (1979) The development of waterlogging damage in young barley plants in relation to plant nutrient status and changes in soil properties. New Phytol, 82, 301–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Drew, M.C., Sisworo, E.J. and Saker, L.R. (1979) Alleviation of waterlogging damage to young barley plants by application of, nitrate and a synthetic cytokinin, and comparison between the effects of waterlogging, nitrogen deficiency and root excision. New Phytol, 82, 315–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dunn, G.A. (1921) Note on the histology of grain roots. Am. J. Bot., 8, 207–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. El-Beltagy, A.S. and Hall, M.A. (1974) Effect of water stress upon endogenous ethylene levels in Vicia faba. New Phytol, 73, 47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fischer, R.A. (1968) Stomatal opening: role of potassium ion uptake by guard cells. Science, 168, 784–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fujino, M. (1959) Stomatal movement and active migration of potassium (Japanese). Kagaku, 29, 600–61Google Scholar
  22. Garcia-Novo, F. and Crawford, R.M.M. (1973) Soil aeration, nitrate reduction and flooding tolerance in higher plants. New Phytol, 72, 1031–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gilbert, S.G. and Shive, J.W. (1942) The significance of oxygen in nutrient substrates for plants: The oxygen requirement. Soil Sci, 53, 143–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Glinski, J. and Stepniewski, W. (1985) Soil aeration and its role for plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 229 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Graham, R.D. and Ulrich, A. (1972) Potassium deficiency-induced changes in stomatal behavior, leaf water potentials, and root system permeability in Beta vulgaris L. Plant Physiol., 49, 105–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hall, M.A., Kapuya, J.A., Sivakumaran, S. and John A. (1977) The role of ethylene in the responses of plants to stress. Pest. Sci, 8, 217–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hammond, L.C.,Alloway, W.H. and Loomis, W.E. (1955) Effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels upon absorption of potassium by plants. Plant Physiol., 30, 155–61Google Scholar
  28. Hardcastle, J. and Schutte, K.H. (1983) Aspects of an experimental study on root aerenchyma development and the ecological implications thereof. Bothalia, 14, 791–4Google Scholar
  29. Herr, E.M. and Jarell, W.M. (1980) Response of chrysanthemum to urea peroxide. HortScience, 15, 501–2Google Scholar
  30. Hiron, R.W.P. and Wright, S.T.C. (1973) The role of endogenous abscisic acid in the response of plants to stress. J. Exp. Bot., 24, 769–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hocking, P.J., Reicosky, D.C. and Meyer, W.S. (1985) Nitrogen status of cotton subjected to two short term periods of waterlogging of varying severity using a sloping plot water-table facility. Plant Soil, 87, 375–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hodgson, A.S. (1982) The effects of duration, timing and chemical amelioration of short-term waterlogging during furrow irrigation of cotton in a cracking grey clay. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 33, 1019–28Google Scholar
  33. Jackson, M.B. (1985) Ethylene and responses of plants to soil waterlogging and submergence. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 36, 145–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jackson, M.B., Drew, M.C. and Gifford, S.C. (1981) Effects of applying ethylene to the root system of Zea mays on growth and nutrient concentration in relation to flooding tolerance. Physiol. Plant., 52, 23–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jackson, M.B., Fenning, T.M. and Jenkins, W. (1985) Aerenchyma (gas-space) formation in adventitious roots of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not controlled by ethylene or small partial pressures of oxygen. J. Exp. Bot., 36, 1566–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jones, R.J. and Mansfield, T.A. (1970) Suppression of stomatal opening in leaves treated with abscisic acid. J. Exp. Bot., 21, 714–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jones, R.J. and Mansfield, T.A. (1972) Effects of abscisic acid and its esters on stomatal aperture and the transpiration ratio. Physiol. Plant., 26, 321–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Karlen, D.L., Sojka, R.E. and Robbins, M.L. (1983) Influence of excess soil-water and N-rates on leaf diffusive resistance and storage quality of tomato fruit. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 14, 699–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Konings, H. (1982) Ethylene-promoted formation of aerenchyma in seedling roots of Zea mays L. under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Physiol. Plant., 54, 119–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Konings, H. and de Wolf, A. (1984) Promotion and inhibition by plant growth regulators of aerenchyma formation in seedling roots of Zea mays. Physiol. Plant., 60, 309–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Konings, H. and Verschuren, G. (1980) Formation of aerenchyma in roots of Zea mays in aerated solutions, and its relation to nutrient supply. Physiol. Plant., 49, 265–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kozlowski, T.T. (ed.) (1984) Flooding and plant growth. Academic Press, New York, 356 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Labanauskas, C.K., Letey, J., Stolzy, L.H. and Valoras, M. (1966) Effects of soil-oxygen and irrigation on the accumulation of macro-and micronutrients in citrus seedlings (Citrus sinensis Var. Osbeck). Soil Sci, 101, 378–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Labanauskas, C.K., Stolzy, L.H. and Handy, M.F. (1972) Concentrations and total amounts of nutrients in citrus seedlings (Citrus sinensis Var. Osbeck) and in soil as influenced by differential soil oxygen treatments. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 36, 457–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Labanauskas, C.K., Stolzy, L.H., Klotz, L.J. and de Wolf, T.A. (1971) Soil oxygen diffusion rates and mineral accumulations in citrus seedlings (Citrus sinensis Var. Bessie). Soil Sci, 111, 386–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Labanauskas, C.K., Stolzy, L.H. and Luxmoore, R.J. (1975) Soil temperature and soil aeration effects on concentrations and total amounts of nutrients in ‘Yecora’ wheat grain. Soil Sci, 120, 450–4Google Scholar
  47. Leggett, J.E. and Stolzy, L.H. (1961) Anaerobiosis and sodium accumulation. Nature, 192, 991–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Letey, J., Stolzy, L.H., Blank, G.B. and Lunt, O.R. (1961) Effect of temperature on oxygen-diffusion rates and subsequent shoot growth, root growth, and mineral content of two plant species. Soil Sci, 92, 314–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Letey, J., Stolzy, L.H. and Valoras, N. (1965) Relationships between oxygen diffusion rate and corn growth. Agron. J., 57, 91–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Letey, J., Stolzy, L.H., Valoras, N. and Szuszkiewicz, T.E. (1962) Influence of soil oxygen on growth and mineral concentration of barley. Agron. J., 54, 538–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leyshon, A.J. and Sheard, R.W. (1974) Influence of short-term flooding on the growth and plant nutrient composition of barley. Can. J. Soil Sci, 54, 463–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lotocki, A. (1977) Effect of root aeration and form of nitrogen on photosynthetic productivity of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.). Acta Soc. Bot. Polon., 46, 303–16Google Scholar
  53. Luxmoore, R.J., Sojka, R.E. and Stolzy, L.H. (1972) Root porosity and growth responses of wheat to aeration and light intensity. Soil Sci, 113, 354–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCallum, A.B. (1905) On the distribution of potassium in animal and vegetable cells. J. Physiol. (London), 32, 95–118Google Scholar
  55. McKee, W.H., Jr, Hook, D.D., DeBell, D.S. and Askew, J.L. (1984) Growth and nutrient status of loblolly pine seedlings in relation to flooding and phosphorus. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 48, 1438–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McPherson, D.C. (1939) Cortical air spaces in the roots of Zea mays L. New Phytol., 38, 190–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. MacRobbie, E.A.C. (1981) Effects of ABA in isolated guard cells of Commelina communis L. J. Exp. Bot., 32, 563–72Google Scholar
  58. Magunda, M.K., Callebaut, F., DeBoot, M. and Gabriels, D. (1984) Role of calcium peroxide as a soil conditioner and oxygen fertilizer. Trop. Agric., (Trinidad), 61, 250–2Google Scholar
  59. Malovolta, E. (1954) Studies on the nitrogenous nutrition of rice. Plant Physiol, 29, 98–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mansfield, T.A. and Jones, R.J. (1971) Effects of abscisic acid on potassium uptake and starch content of stomatal guard cells. Planta, 101, 147–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meek, B.D., Owen-Bartlett, E.C., Stolzy, L.H. and Labanauskas, C.K. (1980) Cotton yield and nutrient uptake in relation to water table depth. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 44, 301–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moldau, H. (1973) Effects of various water regimes on stomatal and mesophyll conductances of bean leaves. Photosynthetica, 7, 1–7Google Scholar
  63. Nazrul Islam, A.K.M., Saha, U.S. and Khan, M.R. (1980) Some aspects of the physiology and ecology of soybean under waterlogged and non-waterlogged condition. Bangladesh J. Bot., 9, 54–9Google Scholar
  64. Pallaghy, C.K. and Raschke, K. (1972) No stomatal response to ethylene. Plant Physiol, 49, 275–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Papenhuijzen, C. (1979) A comparison of the morphological devel-opment of aerated and non-aerated primary root systems of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Acta Bot. Neerl., 28, 281–7Google Scholar
  66. Patrick, W.H. and Mikkelson, D.S. (1971) Plant nutrient behavior in flooded soil. In R.A. Olson, T.J. Army, J.J. Hanway and V.J. Kilmer (eds), Fertilizer technology and use, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 187–215Google Scholar
  67. Peaslee, D.E. and Moss, D.N. (1966) Stomatal conductivities in K-deficient leaves of maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Sci, 8, 427–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Peoples, T.R. and Koch, D.W. (1979) Role of potassium in carbon dioxide assimilation in Medicago sativa L. Plant Physiol., 63, 878–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pessoa de Costa, G.T. and Smucker, A.J.M. (1981) Interactions of oxygen-nitrogen-salinity stresses on plant growth and mineral content of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in sand culture. J. Plant Nutr., 3, 887–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pierce, M. and Raschke, K. (1980) Correlation between loss of turgor and accumulation of abscisic acid in detached leaves. Planta, 148, 174–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ponnamperuma, F.N., Yuan, W.L. and Nhung, M.T.M. (1965) Manganese dioxide as a remedy for a physiological disease of rice associated with reduction of the soil. Nature, 207, 1103–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Radin, J.W. (1981) Water relations of cotton plants under nitrogen deficiency. IV. Leaf senescence during drought and in its relation to stomatal closure. Physiol. Plant., 51, 145–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Radin, J.W. and Ackerson, R.C. (1981) Water relations of cotton plants under nitrogen deficiency. III. Stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and abscisic acid accumulation during drought. Plant Physiol, 67, 115–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Radin, J.W. and Parker, L.L. (1979) Water relations of cotton plants under nitrogen deficiency. II. Environmental interactions on stomata. Plant Physiol, 64, 499–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Radin, J.W., Parker, L.L. and Guinn, G. (1982) Water relations of cotton plants under nitrogen deficiency. V. Environmental control of abscisic acid accumulation and stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid. Plant Physiol, 70, 1066–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Raskin, I. and Kende, H. (1983) How does deep water rice solve its aeration problem? Plant Physiol, 72, 447–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Raskin, I. and Kende, H. (1985) Mechanism of aeration in rice. Science, 228, 327–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Regehr, D.L., Bazzaz, F.A. and Boggess, W.R. (1975) Photosynthesis, transpiration, and leaf conductance of Populus deltoides in relation to flooding and drought. Photosynthetica, 9, 52–61Google Scholar
  79. Reicosky, D.C., Meyer, W.S., Schaefer, N.L. and Sides, R.D. (1985a) Cotton response to short-term waterlogging imposed with a water-table gradient facility. Agric. Water Mgt., 10, 127–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reicosky, D.C., Smith R.C.G. and Meyer, W.S. (1985b) Foliage temperature as a means of detecting stress of cotton subjected to a short-term water-table gradient. Agric. For. Met., 35, 193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reid, D.M. and Bradford, K.J. (1984) Effects of flooding on hormone relations. In T.T. Kozlowski (ed.), Flooding and plant growth, Academic Press, Orlando, pp. 195–219Google Scholar
  82. Russell, E.W. (1976) The chemistry of waterlogged soils. In E.W. Russell (ed.) Soil conditions and plant growth, Longmans, New York, p. 849Google Scholar
  83. Shaybany, B. and Martin, G.C. (1977) Abscisic acid identification and its quantitation in leaves of Juglans seedlings during waterlogging. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci, 102, 300–2Google Scholar
  84. Singh, R. and Ghildyal, B.P. (1980) Soil submergence effects on nutrient uptake, growth and yield of five corn cultivars. Agron. J., 72, 737–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sivakumaran, S. and Hall, M.A. (1978) Effects of age and water stress on endogenous levels of plant growth regulators in Euphorbia lathyrus L. J. Exp. Bot., 29, 195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Snow, A.G., Jr (1936) Transpiration as modified by potassium. Plant Physiol, 11, 583–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sojka, R.E. (1985) Soil-oxygen effects on two determinate soybean isolines. Soil Sci, 140, 333–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sojka, R.E. and Busscher, W.J. (1986) A computer-based plant/soilaeration bibliography. Proceedings of Poster Papers. In D.D. Hook et al, Ecology and management of wetlands Vol II management, use and value of of wetlands, Croom Helm Ltd., Kent, UK, pp. 284–9Google Scholar
  89. Sojka, R.E. and Stolzy, L.H. (1980) Soil-oxygen effects on stomatal response. Soil Sci, 130, 350–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sojka, R.E., Stolzy, L.H. and Kaufmann, M.R. (1975) Wheat growth related to rhizosphere temperature and oxygen levels. Agron. J., 67, 591–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Trolldenier, G. and von Rheinbaben (1981) Root respiration and bacterial population of roots. I: Effects of nitrogen source, potassium nutrition and aeration of roots. Z. Pflanzenernaehr. Bodink., 144, 366–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Trought, M.C.T. and Drew, M.C. (1980a) The development of waterlogging damage in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) I. Shoot and root growth in relation to changes in the concentrations of dissolved gases and solutes in the soil solution. Plant Soil, 54, 77–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Trought, M.C.T. and Drew, M.C. (1980b) The development of waterlogging damage in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) II. Accumulation and redistribution of nutrients by the shoot. Plant Soil, 56, 187–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Trought, M.C.T. and Drew, M.C. (1980c) The development of waterlogging damage in wheat plants in anaerobic solution culture. J. Exp. Bot., 31, 1573–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Trought, M.C.T. and Drew, M.C. (1981) Alleviation of injury to young wheat plants in anaerobic solution cultures in relation to the supply of nitrate and other inorganic nutrients. J. Exp. Bot., 32, 509–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wardle, K. and Simpkins, I. (1979) Stomatal responses of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings to potassium chloride in the nutrient solution. J. Exp. Bot., 30, 1195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wiersum, L.K. (1979) A comparison of the behavior of some root systems under restricted aeration. Neth. J. Agric. Sci, 27, 92–8Google Scholar
  98. Willhite, F.M., Grable, A.R. and Rouse, H.K. (1965) Interaction of nitrogen and soil moisture on the production and persistence of timothy in lysimeters. Agron. J., 57, 479–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wright, S.T.C. (1977) The relationship between leaf water potential (leaf) and the levels of abscisic acid and ethylene in excised wheat leaves. Planta, 134, 183–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wright, S.T.C. (1972) Physiological and biochemical responses to wilting and stress conditions. pp. 349–361. In A.R. Rees, K.E. Cockshull, D.W. Hand and R.D. Hurd (eds), Crop processes in controlled environments, Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  101. Yeas, J.W. and Zobel, R.W. (1983) The response of maize radicle orientation to soil solution and soil atmosphere. Plant Soil, 70, 27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Donal D. Hook 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. E. Sojka
  • L. H. Stolzy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations