Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Wetland Soils

  • K. R. Reddy
  • D. A. Graetz


The pore space of wetland soils is generally filled with water rather than air as in well-drained soils. Oxygen is supplied to wetland soils by diffusion through the floodwater water and through transport via the vascular system of wetland plants. Under both conditions, oxygen is supplied more slowly than the potential consumption rate. These conditions result in the development of two distinctly different soil layers: (1) an oxidized or aerobic surface layer where oxygen is present, and (2) an underlying reduced or anaerobic layer in which no free oxygen is present (Pearsall, 1950).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aomine, S. (1978) Movement of ammonium in paddy soils in Taiwan. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 24, 571–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, W. (1964) Oxygen diffusion from the roots of some British bog plants. Nature, 204, 801–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asami, T. and Takai, Y. (1970) Behaviour of free iron oxide in paddy soils. IV. Relation between reduction of free iron oxide and formation of gases in paddy soils. Nippon Dojohiryo Gaku Zasshi, 41, 48–55 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  4. Bouldin, D.R., Johnson, R.L., Burda, C. and Chun-Wei, Kao. (1974) Losses of inorganic nitrogen from aquatic systems. J. Environ. Qual., 3 (2), 107–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bristow, J.M. (1974) Nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere of freshwater angiosperms. Can. J. Bot., 52, 217–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buresh, R.T., Casselman, M.E. and Patrick, W.H. Jr (1980) Nitrogen fixation in flooded soil systems. A review. Adv. Agron., 33, 149–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Claypool, G. and Kaplan, I. (1974) The origin and distribution of methane in marine sediments. In Natural gases in marine sediments. Plenum. Press, New York, pp. 99–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Curtis, E.J.C., Durrant, K. and Karman, M.M.I. (1975) Nitrification in rivers of the Trent Basin. Water Res., 9, 255–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Delwiche, C.C. and Bryan, B.A. (1976) Denitrification. Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 30, 241–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dicker, H.J. and Smith, D.W. (1985) Metabolism of low molecular weight organic compounds by sulfate-reducing bacteria in a Delaware saltmarsh. Microbiol Ecol., 11, 317–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Engler, R.M. and Patrick, W.H. Jr (1974) Nitrate removal from floodwater overlying flooded soils and sediments. J. Environ. Qual., 3, 409–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fenchel, T.M. and Jorgensen, B.B. (1977) Detritus food chains of aquatic ecosystems. The role of bacteria. Adv. Microbiol. Ecol., 1, 1–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Firestone, M.K. (1982) Biological denitrification. In Nitrogen in agricultural soils. Agronomy, 22, 289–326. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  14. Focht, D.D. and Verstraete, W. (1977) Biochemical ecology of nitrification-denitrification. Adv. Microbiol. Ecol., 1, 124–204Google Scholar
  15. Howarth, R.W. and Giblin, A. (1983) Sulfate reduction in the saltmarshes at Sepelo Island, Georgia. Limnol. Oceanogr., 28, 70–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Howes, B.L., Howarth, R.W., Teal, J.M. and Valiela, I. (1981) Oxidation-reduction potentials in a saltmarsh. Spatial pattern and interactions with primary production. Limnol. Oceanogr., 26, 350–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Howler, R.H. and Bouldin, D.R. (1971) The diffusion and consumption of oxygen in submerged soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 36, 202–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Iizumi, H., Hattori, A. and McRoy, C.P. (1980) Nitrate and nitrite in interstitial waters of eelgrass beds in relation to the rhizosphere. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 47, 191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ingvorsen, K. and Brock, T.D. (1982) Electron flow via sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the anaerobic hypolimnion of Lake Mendota. Limnol. Oceanogr., 27 559–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jenkins, M.C. and Kemp, W.M. (1984) The coupling of nitrification and denitrification in two estuarine sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr., 29, 609–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones, J.G. and Simon, B.M. (1985) Interactions of acetogens and methanogens in anaerobic freshwater sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 49, 944–8PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Kemp, W.M., Wetzel, R.L., Boynton, W.R., D’Elia, C.F. and Stevenson, J.C. (1982) Nitrogen cycling in estuarine sediments: Some concepts and research directions. In Estuarine comparisons. Academic Press, New York, pp. 209–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mitsui, S. (1954) Inorganic nutrition, fertilization and amelioration for lowland rice. Yokenda, Tokyo, p. 107Google Scholar
  24. Oremland, R.S. and Taylor, B.F. (1977) Diurnal fluctuations of O2, N2, and CH4 in the rhizosphere of Thalassia testudinum. Limnol. Oceanogr., 22, 566–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Patrick, W.H. Jr (1981) The role of inorganic redox systems in controlling reduction in paddy soils. In Proc. Symp. on paddy soils. (Edn Institute of Soil Sci. Academia, Sinica, China), Springer-Verlag, New York, pg. 107–17Google Scholar
  26. Patrick, W.H. Jr. and Reddy, K.R. (1976) Nitrification-denitrification reactions in flooded soils and sediments: Dependence on oxygen supply and ammonium diffusion. J. Environ. Qual., 5, 469–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Payne, W.J. (1981) Denitrification. Wiley, New York, p. 214Google Scholar
  28. Pearsall, W.H. (1950) The investigation of wet soils and its agricultural implications. Emp. J. Agro., 18, 289–98Google Scholar
  29. Ponnamperuma, F.N. (1972) The chemistry of submerged soils. Adv. Agron., 24, 29–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reddy, K.R., Feijtel, T.C. and Patrick, W.H. Jr (1986) Effect of soil redox conditions on microbial oxidation of organic matter. In Y. Chen and Y. Avnimelech (eds), The role of organic matter in modern agriculture. Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 117–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reddy, K.R. and Graetz, D.A. (1981) Use of shallow reservoir and flooded organic soil systems for waste water treatment: nitrogen and phosphorus transformation. J. Environ. Qual., 10, 113–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Reddy, K.R. and Patrick, W.H. Jr (1984) Nitrogen transformations and loss in flooded soils and sediments. CRC Crit. Rev. Environ. Control, 13, 273–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Reddy, K.R. and Patrick, W.H. Jr (1986a) Denitrification losses in flooded rice fields. In S.R. DeDatta and W.H. Patrick, Jr (eds), Nitrogen economy of flooded rice soils. Martinus NijhoffGoogle Scholar
  34. Reddy, K.R. and Patrick, W.H. Jr (1986b) Fate of fertilizer nitrogen in the rice root zone. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 50, 649–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reddy, K.R., Patrick, W.H., Jr and Phillips, R.E. (1976) Ammonium diffusion as a factor in nitrogen loss from flooded soils. Soil. Sci, Am. J., 40, 528–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reddy, K.R., Rao, P.S.C. and Jessup, R.E. (1982) The effect of carbon mineralization on denitrification kinetics in mineral and organic soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 46 62–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Reddy, K.R., Sacco, P.D. and Graetz, D.A. (1980) Nitrate reduction in an organic soil-water system. J. Environ. Qual., 9, 283–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ruane, R.J. and Krenkel, P.A. (1978) Nitrification and other factors affecting nitrogen in the Holston River. J. Water Polut. Control Fed., 50, 2016Google Scholar
  39. Rudd, J.W.M. and Taylor, C.D. (1980) Methane cycling in aquatic environments. Adv. Aquatic Microbiol., 2, 77–150Google Scholar
  40. Savant, N.K. and De Datta, S.K. (1982) Nitrogen transformations in wetland rice soils. Adv. Agron., 35, 241–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Smith, R.L. and Klug, M.J. (1981) Electron donors utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria in eutrophic lake sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 42, 116–21PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Stanford, G., Dzienia, S. and VanderPol, R.A. (1975b) Effect of temperature on denitrification in soils. Soil Sci. Soc, Am. Proc., 39, 284–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stanford, G., VanderPol, R.A. and Dzienia, S. (1975a) Denitrification rates in relation to total and extractable soil carbon. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 39, 284–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stouthamer, A.H., van’t Riet, J and Oltmann, L.F. (1980) Respiration with nitrate as acceptor. In C.J. Kowles (ed.), Diversity of bacterial respiratory systems. Vol. 2, CRC Press, Boco Raton FL. pp. 19–48Google Scholar
  45. Strayer, R.F. and Tiedje, J.M. (1978) Kinetic parameters of the conversion of the methane precursors to methane in a hypereutrophic lake sediment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 36, 330–46PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Takai, Y. and Kamura, T. (1966) The mechanism of reduction in waterlogged paddy soil. Folia Microbiol., 11, 304–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Takai, Y. and Uehara, Y. (1973) Nitrification and denitrification in the surface layer of submerged soil. J. Sci. Soil Manure, 44, 463–502Google Scholar
  48. Teal, J.M. and Valicla, I. and Berlo, D. (1979) Nitrogen fixation by rhizosphere and free-living bacteria on salt marsh sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr., 24, 126–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Trimble, R.B. and Ehrlich, H.L. (1970) Bacteriology of manganese nodules. IV. Reduction of an MnO2 -reductase system in a marine Bacillus. Appl. Microbiol., 19, 966–72PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Winfrey, M.R. and Zeikus, J.G. (1979) Anaerobic metabolism of immediate methane precursors in Lake Mendota sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 37, 244–53PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Yoshida, T. (1975) Microbial metabolism of flooded soils. In E.A. Paul and A.D. McLaren (eds), Soil biochemistry, Vol. 3. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 83–122Google Scholar
  52. Yoshida, T. and Ancajas, R.R. (1973a) Nitrogen fixing activity in upland and flooded rice fields. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 37, 42–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yoshida, T. and Ancajas, R.R. (1973b) The fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in the rice rhizosphere. Soil Biol. Biochem., 5, 153–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yoshida, T. and Broadbent, F.E. (1975) Movement at atmospheric nitrogen in rice plants. Soil Sci., 120 (4), 288–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Donal D. Hook 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. R. Reddy
  • D. A. Graetz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations