Wetlands and Their Relationship to Migrating and Winter Populations of Waterfowl
For at least six months of the year, waterfowl are away from their breeding grounds and located on migration and winter areas. Migration and winter areas, however, are considered a unit because they interact to provide the food resources necessary to sustain waterfowl until they return to their breeding grounds. When wetland resources along migration corridors are inadequate, waterfowl rely on food resources of winter areas for longer periods of time. As a result, waterfowl making the more direct and longer flights between breeding and winter areas are subject to increased survival constraints.
KeywordsBreeding Ground Winter Ground Public Ownership Bottomland Hardwood Winter Area
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bellrose, F.C. (1976) Ducks, geese and swans of North America Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 544 pp.Google Scholar
- Bellrose, F.C. (1985) The adaptability of the mallard leads to its future. Proc. of the Mallard Symposium, 19–22 August, Bismarck, North Dakota, 10 pp.Google Scholar
- Cottam, C. (1939) Food habits of North American diving ducks. US Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull 643, 140 pp.Google Scholar
- Day, A.M. (1959) North American waterfowl Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 363 pp.Google Scholar
- Forsythe, S.W. (1985) The protection of bottomland hardwood wetlands of the Lower Mississippi Valley. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf 50, 566–72Google Scholar
- Frayer, W.E., Monahan, T.J., Bowden, D.C. and Graybill, F.A. (1983) Status and trends of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the conterminous United States, 1950s to 1970s. Dept. Forest and Wood Sci., Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, 32 pp.Google Scholar
- Gabrielson, I.N. (1947) Wildlife conservation Macmillan, New York, 250 pp.Google Scholar
- Phillips, J.C. and Lincoln, F.C. (1930) American waterfowl: their present situation and the outlook for their future Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 312 pp.Google Scholar
- Roe, H.B. and Ayres, Q.C. (1954). Engineering for agricultural drainage McGraw-Hill, New York, 501 pp.Google Scholar
- Shaw, S.P. and Fredine, C.G. (1956) Wetlands of the United States: their extent and their value to waterfowl and other wildlife.US Dept. Inter., Fish Wildl. Serv., Circular 39. 67 pp.Google Scholar
- US Fish and Wildlife Service (1977) Concept plan for waterfowl wintering habitat preservation. Central Valley California. Region 1, Portland, Oregon. 116 pp. plus appendices.Google Scholar