Solubilities of Non-Metals in Liquid Lithium - A Review

  • Peter Hubberstey
  • Andrew T. Dadd
  • Peter G. Roberts


Interest in the chemical technology of liquid lithium has been stimulated recently by its candidature for tritium breeding and primary coolant applications in D-T fuelled thermonuclear reactors (1, 2). Owing to its extreme reactivity, liquid lithium contains dissolved impurities, particularly hydrogen, tritium, carbon, silicon, nitrogen and oxygen, which, because of their pervasivity and chemical reactivity, have a profound influence on, inter alia, corrosion and embrittlement processes, tritium recovery chemistry and impurity control and purification techniques. Obviously an essential prerequisite to an understanding of the basic chemistry of these processes is a detailed knowledge of the solubility of reactive impurities in liquid lithium. In this paper we review those solubility data presently available, propose recommended solubility expressions and, where possible, attempt to rationalise solubility trends using thermodynamic concepts.


Hydrogen Isotope Solubility Data Tritium Breeding Liquid Lithium Lower Diagram 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    J. H. DeVan, J.Nucl.Mater., 85 /86 (1979) 249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. E. Gold and D. L. Smith, Proc. 2nd. Int.Conf. Liquid Metals in Energy Prod. Apr. 21–25th., 1980, Richland, Wa., in press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. F. Adams, P. Hubberstey and R. J. Pulham, J.Less-Common Metals, 42 (1975) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. F. Adams, M. G. Down, P. Hubberstey and R. J. Pulham, J.Less-Common Metals, 42 (1975) 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. F. Adams, P. Hubberstey, A. E. Thunder and R. J. Pulham, J.Less-Common Metals, 46 (1976) 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Veleckis, R. M. Yonco and V. A. Maroni, J.Less-Common Metals, 55 (1977) 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. J. Smith, J. F. Land, G. M. Begun and A. M. Batistoni, J.Nucl.Chem.Soc., 41 (1979) 1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. M. Yonco and M. I. Homa, Trans.Amer.Nucl.Soc., 32 (1979) 270.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. T. Dadd and P. Hubberstey, J. C. S. Faraday Trans. I, in press.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Hubberstey and P. G. Roberts, unpublished data.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. M. Yonco, E. Veleckis and V. A. Maroni, J.Nucl.Mater, 57 (1975) 317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. A. Bolshakov, P. I. Fedorov and L. Stepina, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Tsvetn. Metall., (1959) 52.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. E. Hoffman, USAEC Rept. ORNL-2894 (1960).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. N. Arnol’dov, M.N. Ivanovskii and B. A. Shmatko, Teplofiz. Vyssh. Temp., 5 (1967) 380.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. M. Yonco, V. A. Maroni, J. E. Strain and J. H. DeVan, J.Nucl.Mater., 79 (1979) 354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. E. Konovalov, N. I. Seliverstov and V. P. Emel’yanov, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Met., 3 (1968) 77.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. S. Dworkin, H. R. Bronstein and M. A. Bredig, J.Phys. Chem., 66 (1962) 572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Nakajima, R. Minami, K. Nakanishi and N. Watanabe, Bull.Chem.Soc.Japan, 47 (1974) 2071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. H. Hildebrand and R. L. Scott, “The Solubility of Non-Electrolytes”, 3rd. Edn., Reinhold, New York, N.Y. (1950).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. A. Sharma and R. N. Seefurth, J.Electrochem. Soc., 123 (1976) 1763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Calculated by interpolation between Si, Sn and Pb data.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. F. Smith and Z. Moser, J.Nucl.Mater., 59 (1976) 158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. H. Aylward and T.J.V. Findlay, S. I. Chemical Data, Wiley, London, (1971).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Hubberstey
    • 1
  • Andrew T. Dadd
    • 1
  • Peter G. Roberts
    • 1
  1. 1.Nottingham UniversityNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations