Advertisement

Glial Plasminogen Activators in Developing and Regenerating Neural Tissue

  • Nurit Kalderon
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 191)

Abstract

In the following chapter I would like to introduce the postulate that a population of neural cells -- the glia -- serve as construction/remodelling agents in morphogenetic processes during development and regeneration of the nervous system. The capacity of these glial cells to perform their plasticity function effectively is dependent on their potential to generate extracellular proteolytic activities, namely, to produce plasminogen activator (PA) of the urokinase type (u-PA). Previously published and new data are being presented in support of this hypothesis.

Keywords

Sciatic Nerve Schwann Cell Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Nerve Stump Plasmin Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Peters, S.L. Palay, and H. deF. Webster, In: “The fine structure of the nervous system: The neurons and supporting cells,” W.B. Saunders Company (1976).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.L. Sidman, and P. Rakic, Neuronal migration, with special reference to developing human brain: A review, Brain Res., 62: 1–35 (1973).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Silver, S.E. Lorenz, D. Wahlsten, and J. Coughlin, Axonal guidance during development of the great cerebral commissures: Descriptive and experimental studies in vivo on the role of preformed glial pathways, J. Comp. Neurol., 210: 10–29 (1982).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.R. Jacobs, and C.S. Goodman, Embryonic development of axon pathways in the Drosophila CNS. I. A glial scaffold appears before the first growth cones, J. Neurosci., 9: 2402–2411 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.M. Richardson, A.J. Aguayo, and U.M. McGuinness, Role of sheath cells in axonal regeneration, In: “Spinal Cord Reconstruction,” Kao, Bunge, and Reier, eds., Raven Press, New York, pp. 293304 (1983).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G.S. Smith, R.H. Miller, and J. Silver, Astrocyte transplantation induces callosal regeneration in postnatal acallosal mice, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 485: 185–205 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. Kalderon, Differentiating astroglia in nervous tissue histogenesis/regeneration: studies in a model system of regenerating peripheral nerve, J. Neurosci., 21: 501–512 (1988a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. Blasi, J.-D. Vassalli, and K. Danq, Urokinase-type plasminogen activator: proenzyme, receptor, and inhibitors, J. Cell Biol., 104: 801–804 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Mignatti, E. Robbins, and D.B. Rifkin, Tumor invasion through the human amniotic membrane: requirement for a proteinase cascade, Cell, 47: 487–498 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Soreq, and R. Miskin, Plasminogen activator in the rodent brain, Brain Res., 216: 361–374 (1981).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    N. Kalderon, and CA. Williams, Extracellular proteolysis: developmentally regulated activity during chick spinal cord histogenesis, Dev. Brain Res., 25: 1–9 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    N. Kalderon, Migration of Schwann cells and wrapping of neurites in vitro: A function of protease activity (plasmin) in the growth medium, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 76: 5992–5996 (1979).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. Kalderon, Role of the plasmin-generating system in developing nervous tissue: I. Proteolysis as a mitogenic signal for the glial cells. J. Neurosci. Res., 8: 509–519 (1982).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.L. Salter, and R.P. Bunge, Studies of Schwann cell proliferation. I. An analysis in tissue culture of proliferation during development, Wallerian degeneration, and direct injury, J. Cell Biol., 84: 739–752 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    E.M. Hatten, Neuronal regulation of astroglial morphology and proliferation in vitro, J . Cell BioL, 100: 384–396 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    HJ. Weinberg, and P.S. Spencer, The fate of Schwann cells isolated from axonal contact, J. Neurocyt., 7: 555–569 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.G. Pellegrino, and P.S. Spencer, Schwann cell mitosis in response to regenerating peripheral axons in vivo, Brain Res., 341: 16–25 (1985).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    PJ. Reier, Gliosis following CNS injury: The anatomy of astrocytic scars and their influence on axonal elongation, in: “Astrocytes”, Fedoroff, S., and Vernadakis, A., eds., Academic Press, New York, Vol. 3, pp. 263–324 (1986).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    P.J. Reier, and J.D. Houlé, The glial scar: Its bearing on axonal elongation and transplantation approaches to CNS repair, Adv. Neurol., 47: 87–136 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    N. Kalderon, Schwann cell proliferation and localized proteolysis: expression of plasminogen-activator activity redominates in the proliferating cell populations, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81: 7216–7220 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Krystosek, and N.W. Seeds, Peripheral neurons and Schwann cells secrete plasminogen activator, J. Cell Biol., 98: 773–776 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Alvarez-Buylla, and J.E. Valinsky, Production of plasminogen activator in cultures of superior cervical ganglia and isolated Schwann cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 82: 3519–3523 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.P. Brockes, K.L. Fields, and M.C. Raff, Studies on cultured rat Schwann cells. I. Establishment of purified populations from cultures of peripheral nerve, Brain Res., 165: 105–118 (1979).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.P. Brockes, G.E. Lemke, and D.R. Balzer, Purification and preliminary characterization of a glial growth factor from the bovine pituitary, J. Biol. Chem., 255: 8374–8377 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Granelli-Piperno, and E. Reich, A study of proteases and protease-inhibitor complexes in biological fluids, J. Exp. Med., 147: 223–234 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    U.K Laemmli, Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4, Nature, 227: 680–685 (1970).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.-D. Vassalli, and D. Belin, Amiloride selectively inhibits the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, FEES (Fed. Eur. Biochem. Soc.) Lett. 214: 187–191, (1987).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. Kalderon, K. Ahonen, and S. Fedoroff, The immature astrocyte as the predominant source of plasminogen-activator activity and of the urokinase type: Studies in differentiating astroglial cell cultures. Submitted for publication (1990).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McCarthy and de Vellis, Preparation of separate astroglial and aliogodendroglia cell cultures from rat cerebral tissue. J. Cell Biol., 85: 890–902 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Kalderon, The molecular forms of plasminogen activator in differentiating astroglia are developmentally regulated, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 14: 1056 (1988b).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    E.R. Abney, P.P. Bartlett, M.C. Raff, Astrocytes, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes develop on schedule in dissociated cell cultures of embryonic rat brain, Dev. Biol., 83: 301–310 (1981).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A.J. Aguayo, M. Vidal-Sanz, M.P. Villegas-Perez, G. M. Bray, Growth and connectivity of axotomized retinal neurons in adult rats with optic nerves substituted by PNS grafts linking the eye and the midbrain, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 495: 1–9 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    L.R. Williams, F.M. Longo, H.C. Powell, G. Lundborg, and S. Varon, Spatial-temporal progress of peripheral nerve regeneration within a silicone chamber: parameters for a bioassay, J. Comp. Neurol., 18: 460–470 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Lundborg, R.H. Gelberman, F.M. Longo, C.H. Powell, and S. Varon, In vivo regeneration of cut nerves encased in silicone tubes. Growth across a six-millimeter gap, J. Neuropathology Exp. Neurol., 41: 412–422 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Bignami, G. Cella, N.H. Chi, Plasminogen activators in rat neural tissues during development and in Wallerian degeneration, Acta Neuropathol. (Berl), 58: 224–228 (1982).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    N. Kalderon, J.P. Kirk, and A. Juhasz, Impairment of sciatic nerve regeneration by protease inhibitor treatment: inhibition of Schwann cell migration, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 13: 1208 (1987).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    N. Kalderon, K. Ahonen, A. Juhazs, J P Kirk, and S. Fedoroff, Astroglia and plasminogen activator activity: differential activity level in the immature, mature and “reactive” astrocytes. In: Current Issues In Neural Regeneration Research (Reier, P.J., Bunge, R.P. and Seil, F.J. eds.) Alan R. Liss Press, New York, pp. 271–280 (1988).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nurit Kalderon
    • 1
  1. 1.The Rockefeller UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations