The Effect of High-Gradient, High-Strength Magnetic Fields on the Early Embryonic Development of Frogs
Data on the biological effect of static magnetic fields are presented in Volume 1 of the present series(1) and by further listings.(2–4) They have failed to provide either specific explanations of particular results or any overall explanation of why magnetic fields in general or particular field strengths or field gradients should influence biological systems. Above all, no experimentally verified predictions of the effects of a given field on a given biochemical reaction, cellular process, or development of a given organism have been made. The most recent biophysics literature simply adds further contradictory evidence. For instance, Rabinovitch et al.(5) show that even extremely high fields have no effect on certain basic enzymatic reactions while Levengood(6) shows statistically significant results of much lower* fields than 20,000 G. Motivated by a review of this literature, we attempted to devise a critical experiment to test a hypothesis that would be applicable to some of the best of the reported experiments, but evidence for which would be enhanced by the choice of our conditions. We would like to report the results of this attempt, which on the experimental side proved to be rather striking and positive but in terms of the initial hypothesis left more questions than answers.
KeywordsMagnetic Field Early Embryonic Development Leopard Frog Magnetic Field Exposure Rana Pipiens
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