Advertisement

The Effect of High-Gradient, High-Strength Magnetic Fields on the Early Embryonic Development of Frogs

  • Peter W. Neurath

Abstract

Data on the biological effect of static magnetic fields are presented in Volume 1 of the present series(1) and by further listings.(2–4) They have failed to provide either specific explanations of particular results or any overall explanation of why magnetic fields in general or particular field strengths or field gradients should influence biological systems. Above all, no experimentally verified predictions of the effects of a given field on a given biochemical reaction, cellular process, or development of a given organism have been made. The most recent biophysics literature simply adds further contradictory evidence. For instance, Rabinovitch et al.(5) show that even extremely high fields have no effect on certain basic enzymatic reactions while Levengood(6) shows statistically significant results of much lower* fields than 20,000 G. Motivated by a review of this literature, we attempted to devise a critical experiment to test a hypothesis that would be applicable to some of the best of the reported experiments, but evidence for which would be enhanced by the choice of our conditions. We would like to report the results of this attempt, which on the experimental side proved to be rather striking and positive but in terms of the initial hypothesis left more questions than answers.

Keywords

Magnetic Field Early Embryonic Development Leopard Frog Magnetic Field Exposure Rana Pipiens 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    M. F. Barnothy (ed.) Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields, Vol. 1, Plenum Press, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leo Gross, “Bibliography,” in: Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields (M. F. Barnothy, ed.) Vol. 1, Plenum Press, New York, (1964).Google Scholar
  3. L. D. Davis et al., Federation Proceedings 21: 1–38 (1962).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. E. Busby, NASA Contract Report CR-889 (1967).Google Scholar
  5. J. E. Rabinovitch et al., Biophys. J. 7: 187, 319 (1967).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. C. Levengood, Biophys. J. 7: 297 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Holter Company, Medford, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. W. Neurath, in: Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields (M. F. Barnothy, ed.) Vol. 1, Chap. 2, Plenum Press, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. D. Brown and J. D. Caston, Develop. Biol. 5: 445 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. M. Barnothy, in: Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields (M. F. Barnothy, ed.) Vol. 1, Chaps. 1, 2, Plenum Press, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. F. Bamothy, in: Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields (M. F. Barnothy, ed.) Vol. 1, Chaps. 3, 4, Plenum Press, New York (1964).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter W. Neurath
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics Division, Department of Therapeutic RadiologyNew England Medical Center HospitalsBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations