The Properties of Ice
Systematic studies of ice date from the first half of the twentieth century and are closely linked with the work of Bridgman(116, 120,121) and Tammann,(1051) who investigated the effects of pressure and temperature on its phase behavior. Their experiments led to the realization that there existed a number of complex structural modifications of ice, stable or metastable under a variety of conditions, and this provided the foundations for subsequent investigations of the detailed structures of these polymorphs and the internal molecular motions within the ice lattice. The structure of and molecular interactions in the solid state are generally more easily described than those in the corresponding liquid, and this has been particularly true for water. Thus, studies of the intermolecular nature of liquid water have frequently employed analogies with the known properties of ice and this will become more apparent in subsequent chapters of this volume. In a way this is hardly surprising, since many important developments in our understanding of the liquid state have been due to solid-state physicists who applied familiar techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, which had proved so successful in the elucidation of solid structures.
KeywordsHydrogen Bond Length Ionic Defect Orientational Defect Dipole Reorientation Bjerrum Defect
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