Lithium Ion Transport Mechanisms In Human Erythrocytes

  • Jochen Duhm


The observation of interindividual differences in the Li+ distribution ratio between red cells and plasma (1) and the finding of high ratios Li+ iLi+ being characteristic for manic-depressive (bipolar) patients (2) suggested that disturbances in cell membrane function may be somehow related to the pathophysiology of bipolar illness. In styidies on the basic mechanism underlying the interindi- vidual+differences in red cell membrane Li+ transport five pathways for Li movements in human erythrocytes have been characterized. These are listed in Fig. 1, together with inhibitors which have been essential tools in their identification.


Essential Hypertension Human Erythrocyte Exchange System Essential Hypertensive Patient Cell Membrane Function 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1).
    Maggs, R., in IVth World Congress of Psychiatry, Part 3 (J. J. Lopez, ed.), Congress Series No 150, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp. 2211–2214 (1967)Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    Mendels, J., and A. Frazer, J. Psychiat. Res. 10: 9–18 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3).
    Ehrlich, B. E., and J. M. Diamond, Am.J.Physiol. 237: C102-C110 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4).
    Ehrlich, B. E., and J. M. Diamond, J.Membrane Biol. 52: 187–200 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5).
    Tosteson,D.C., Fed.Proc. 40: 1429–1433 (1981)Google Scholar
  6. 6).
    Duhm,J., in Basic Mechanisms in the Action of Lithium (H.M.Emrich, J.B.Aldenhoff, and H.D.Lux, eds.), Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp. 1–20Google Scholar
  7. 7).
    Greil, W., F. Eisenried, B. F. Becker, and J. Duhm, Psychopharmacology 53: 19–26 (1977)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8).
    Haas, M., J. Schooler., and D. C. Tosteson, Nature (Lond.) 258: 425–427 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9).
    Duhm, J., F. Eisenried, B. F. Becker, and W. Greil, Pflügers Arch. 364: 147–155 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10).
    Duhm, J., and B. F. Becker, Pflügers Arch. 367: 211–219 (1977)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11).
    Duhm J., and B. F. Becker. Pflügers Arch. 370: 211–219 (1977)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12).
    Pandey, G.N., B. Sarkadi, M. Haas, R. B. Gunn, J. M. David, and D. C. Tosteson, J.Gen.Physiol. 72: 233–247Google Scholar
  13. 13).
    Sarkadi, B., J. K. Alifimoff, R. B. Gunn, and D. C. Tosteson, J.Gen. Physiol. 72: 249–265 (1978)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14).
    Ussing, H. H., Nature (Lond.) 160: 262- (1947)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15).
    Szentistvanyi,I., Z.Janka, F.Joo, A.Rimanocza, A.Juhasz, and L.Latzkovits, Neurosci.Lett. 13: 157–161Google Scholar
  16. 16).
    Reiser, G., and J.Duhm, Brain Res. 252: 247–258 (1982)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17).
    Smith, I. C. H., J.Physiol. (Lond.) 242: 99P-101P (1974)Google Scholar
  18. 18).
    Motais, R., J.Physiol. (Lond.) 233: 395–422 (1973)Google Scholar
  19. 19).
    Duhm, J., and B. F. Becker, J.Membrane Biol. 51: 263–286 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20).
    Funder, J., J. O. Wieth, H. A. Jensen, and K. K. Ibsen, In Recent Advances in Hypertension Mechanisms (in press) Aronson, P. S., New Engl. J. Med. 307: 317 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21).
    Roos, A., and W. F. Boron, Physiol.Rev. 61: 296–434 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22).
    Greil, W., B. F. Becker, and J. Duhm, In Lithium, Controversies and Unresolved Issues (T.B. Cooper, S. Gershon, N. S. Kline, and M. Schou, eds.), Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp. 209–217 (1979)Google Scholar
  23. 23).
    Canessa, M., N. Adragna, H. S. Solomon, T. M. Connolly, and D. C. Tosteson, New Engl.J.Med. 302: 772–776 (1980)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24).
    Woods, J. W., R. J. Falk, A. W. Pittman, P. J. Klemmer, B. S. Watson, and K. Namboodiri, New Engl.J.Med. 306: 593–595 (1982)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25).
    Adragna, N. C., M. L. Canessa, H. Solomon, E. Slater, and D. C. Tosteson, Hypertension 4: 795–804 (1982)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26).
    Ibsen, K. K., H. AE.Jensen, J. O. Wieth, and J. Funder, Hypertension 4: 703–709 (1982)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27).
    Duhm, J., B. O. Göbel, R. Lorenz, and P. C. Weber, Hypertension 4: 477–482 (1982)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28).
    McCoy, S. N., J. X. Thavundayil, G. Schwartz, and P. Etienne, Am.J. Psychiatry 139: 247–248 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29).
    Meitzer, H. L., S. Kassir, D. L. Dunner, and R. R. Fieve, Psychopharma- cology 54: 113–118 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30).
    Worley, R. J., W. M. Hentschel, C. Cormier et al., New Engl.J.Med. 307: 412–416 (1982)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31).
    Clegg, G., J. Gledhill, and D. B. Morgan, IRCS 10: 828–829 (1982)Google Scholar
  32. 32).
    Woods, J. W., J. C. Parker, and B. S. Watson, New Engl.J.Med. 308: 1258–1261 (1983)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33).
    Duhm, J., B. F. Becker, and W. Greil, In Biological Psychiatry Today (J. Obiols et al., eds.), Elsevier, North-Holland Biomedical Press, pp. 1137–1142 (1979)Google Scholar
  34. 34).
    Stewart, A. D., Lancet i: 500–501 (1982)Google Scholar
  35. 35).
    Meyer, P., R. P. Garay, C. Nazaret, G. Dagher, M. Bellet, M. Broyer, and J. Feingold, Br.Med.J. 282: 1114–1117 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36).
    Garay, R. P., G. Dagher, M.-G. Pernollet, M.A. Devynck, and P. Meyer, Nature (Lond.) 284: 281–283 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jochen Duhm
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of MunichMunchen-2Germany

Personalised recommendations