Advertisement

Neuroendocrinological Profile of Major Depression

  • C. N. Stefanis
  • B. Alevizos
  • C. Soldatos
  • G. Papadimitriou
  • G. Tolis
  • M. Liparaki

Abstract

Postulates of endocrine involvement in the pathophysiology of mental disorders date back to the beginning of the century (Bleuler, 1954). However, it is only in the pasts few years, with the advancement of biochemical techniques for accurately measuring hormonal blood levels, that such an involvement could reliably be tested. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hyperactivity has been proposed to the most prominent and most specific biological marker of endogenous depression (Carroll, 1980). In fact, it has been reported that about half of the patients suffering from major depression fail to suppress Cortisol secretion following dexamethasone administration (Carroll, 1982). Other studies in which the TSH response to TRH is used have indicated an abnormality of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in patients with this type of affective disorders (Loosen and Prange, 1980; Gold et al, 1981). Recently additional provocative tests like clinidine, apomorphine and insulin tolerance were used to evaluate other hormonal systems in depression.

Keywords

Affective Disorder Dexamethasone Suppression Test Endogenous Depression Cortisol Suppression Schizophreniform Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bleuler, M., 1954, “Endokrinologische Psychiatrie”, Georg Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  2. Brambilla, F., Smeraldi, E., Bellodi, L., Sacchetti, E. and Mueller, E., 1980, Neuroendocrine correlates and monoaminergic hypothesis in primary affective disorder, in: “Progress in Psychoneuroendocrinology”, Brambilla, F., Racagni, G.,de Wied, D., eds., Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Carroll, B.J., 1982, The dexamethasone suppression test for melancolia, Brit.J.Psychiat., 140:292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carroll, B.J., Sehroeder, K., Mukhopadhyay, S., Greden, J.F., Fenberg, M., Ritche, J. and Tarika, J., 1980, Plasma dexamethasone concentrations and Cortisol suppression response in patients with endogenous depression, J.CEM, 51:433Google Scholar
  5. Carroll, B.J., Feinberg, M., Greden, J.F., et al., 1981, A specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of melancholia. Standardization validation and clinical utility, Arch.Gen.Psychiat., 38:15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan, J.S.D., Seidah, N.G. and Chretien, M., 1983, Measurements of N-POMC in human plasma, J.CEM., 56:791Google Scholar
  7. Coppen, A., Rama Rao, V.A., Bishop, M., et al., 1980, Neuroendocrine studies in affective disorders, J. Aff. Pis., 2:311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coryell, W., Gaffney, G. and Burkhart, P.E., 1982, The dexamethasone suppression test and familial subtypes of deppression — a naturalistic replication, 1982; Biol. Psych., 17:33Google Scholar
  9. Extein, I., Pottach, A.L.C., Gold, M.S., et al., 1982, Using the protirelin test to distinguish mania from schizophrenia, Arch. Gen, Psychiat., 39:77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gold, M.S., Potash, A.L.C., Extein, I., et al., 1981, The TRH test in the diagnosis of major and minor depression, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 6:159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gold, M.S., Pottash, A.L.C., Ryan, N., Sweeney, D.R., Davis, R.K. and Martin, D.M., 1980, TRH induced TSH response in unipolar, bipolar and secondary depressions, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 5:147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Holsboer, F., Klein, H., Bender, W., et al., 1980, Hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal activity in a group of 100 heterogenic patients: Diagnostic validity and biochemical aspects of the Cortisol response to dexamethasone suppression, in: “Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology”, A. Carlson, J. Engel, G.G. Gottfries, et al., eds., Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Hwu, H., Rudorfer, M.V., and Clayton, P.J., 1981, Dexamethasone suppression test and subtypes of depression, Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 38:363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krieger, D.T., and Aschoff, J., 1979, Endocrine and other biological rhythms, in: “Endocrinology”, L. J. DeGroot, G.F. Cahill, W.D. Odell, L. Martini, D. H. Nelson, J.T. Potts, E. Steinberger and A. Winegrad, eds., Grune and Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Langer, G., Schönbeck, G., Koinig, G., Lesch, O., and Schussler, M., 1979, Hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in endogenous depression, Lancet, ii: 524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Loosen, P.T., Prange, A.J. Jr., 1980, TRH: A useful tool for psychoneuroendocrine investigation, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 5:63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mendlewicz, J., Charles, G., and Franckson, J.M., 1982, The dexamethansome suppression test in affective disorder: Relationship to clinical and genetic subgroups, Brit. J. Psychiat., 141:464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mendlewicz, J., Van Cauter, E., Linkowski, P., L’Hermite, M., and Robyn, C., 1980, The 24-hour profile of prolactine in depression, Life Sciences, 27:2015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sachar, E.J., 1975, Neuroendocrine Abnormalities in depressive illness, in: “Topics in Psychoendocrinology”, E.J. Sachar, ed., Grune and Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Schlesser, M.A., Winokur, G., and Sherman, B.M., 1980, Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in depressive illness: its relationship to classification, Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 37:737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schulman, R., and Diewold, P., 1977, A two dose dexamethasone suppression test in patients with psychiatric illness, Can. Psych. Ass. J., 22Google Scholar
  22. Tosca, P., Fenoglio, L., Zerbi, F., Romani, A., Bezzi, G., Ferrari, E., Canepari, C., 1982, Neuroendocrinological spects of depression and symptomatological picture, Psychiat. Clin., 15:153Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. N. Stefanis
    • 1
  • B. Alevizos
    • 1
  • C. Soldatos
    • 1
  • G. Papadimitriou
    • 1
  • G. Tolis
    • 1
  • M. Liparaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of PsychiatryAthens National University Eginition HospitalAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations