Orienting Reflexes in Medical Practice

  • Walter Knopp


About thirty years ago, unbeknownst to each other, two scientific teams encountered in some of their subjects unexpected phenomena which appeared to be related to stressful stimuli. One team was headed by a biophysicist physiologist (Corson 1961). The other team by two cardiologists (Friedman et al. 1958). Both teams pursued their leads against all odds and peer advice. Meanwhile, Corson, using dogs established a physiologically well defined typology based on longitudinal studies of reactions (including orienting reflexes — O.R.) to a psychologically stressful environment (Corson and Corson, 1976; Corson and Corson, 1980). His findings are supported by refined human studies (Eliot and Buell 1983). In the latter, the two authors have used different measures and came to similar conclusions, namely that there are two kinds of responders diametrically opposed to each other.


Pupillary Diameter Orienting Reflex Hostility Score Constitutional Difference Psychomotor Behavior 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Knopp
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry ColumbusOhio State University — College of MedicineUSA

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