Advertisement

Some Characteristics of Orienting Reflexes

  • Irving Maltzman

Abstract

“My principal thesis today will be that the input is never into a quiescent or static system, but always into a system which is already actively excited and organized. In the intact organism behavior is the result of interaction of this background of excitation with input from any designated stimulus. Only when we can state the general characteristics of this background of excitation, can we understand the effects of a given input” (Lashley, 1951, p.112).

Keywords

Classical Conditioning Task Instruction Serial Order Orienting Reflex Dominant Focus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bechterev, V. M. General principles of human reflexology. New York: International Publishers, 1932. (Republished: New York: Arno Press, 1973).Google Scholar
  2. Berlyne, D. E. Conflict, arousal and curiosity. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bykov, K. M. (Ed.). Text-book of physiology. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1958.Google Scholar
  4. Humphrey, G. Thinking. London: Methuen, 1951.Google Scholar
  5. Lashley, K. S. The problem of serial order in behavior. In L. A. Jeffress (Ed.), Cerebral mechanisms in behavior. New York: Wiley, 1951.Google Scholar
  6. Luria, A. R., & Vinogradova, O. S. An objective investigation of the dynamics of semantic systems. British Journal of Psychology, 1959, 50, 89–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Maltzman, I. Orienting reflexes and classical conditioning in humans. In H. D. Kimmel, E. H. van, and J. F. Orlebeke (Eds.), The orienting reflex in humans. New York: Erlbaum, 1979. (a)Google Scholar
  8. Maltzman, I. Orienting reflexes and significance; A reply to O. Gorman. Psychophysiology, 1979, L6, 274–283. (b)Google Scholar
  9. Maltzman, I., & Raskin, D. C. Effects of individual differences in the orienting reflex on conditioning and complex processes.Google Scholar
  10. Maltzman, I., Raskin, D. C., & Wolff, C. Latent inhibition of the GSR conditioned to words. Physiological Psychology, 1979, 7, 193–203.Google Scholar
  11. Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. The measurement of meaning. Urbana, 111.: University of Illinois, 1957.Google Scholar
  12. Razran, G. The observable unconscious and the inferable conscious in current Soviet psycho-physiology: Interoceptive conditioning, semantic conditioning, and the orienting reflex. Psychological Review, 1961, 68, 81–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rusinov, V. S. The dominant focus. New York: Consultants Bureau, 1973.Google Scholar
  14. Voronin, L. G., Leontiev, A. N., Luria, A. R., Sokolov, E. N., & Vinogradova, O. S. (Eds.), Orienting reflex and exploratory behavior. Washington, D. C.: American Institute for Biological Sciences, 1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irving Maltzman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUCLALos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations