Advertisement

Sympathetic-Adrenal and Pituitary-Adrenal Response to Challenge

  • Marianne Frankenhaeuser
  • Ulf Lundberg

Abstract

The sympathetic-adrenal medullary and pituitary-adrenal cortical systems form the corner stones of modern stress research, with roots in Cannon’s and Selye’s work. Both systems are controlled by the brain. Hence, when a person perceives a change, or threat, or challenge in the environment, this triggers a chain of neuroendocrine events. Messages go to the adrenal medulla, which secretes the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline, and to the adrenal cortex, which secretes Cortisol. Catecholamines and Cortisol have several key functions: as sensitive indicators of the stressfulness of person- environment transactions, as regulators of vital bodily functions and, under some circumstances, as mediators of bodily reactions leading to disease. In short, the effects may be adaptive but they may also be harmful, particularly in promoting cardiovascular pathology (Kones, 1979).

Keywords

Adrenal Medulla Cortisol Excretion Urinary Cortisol Excretion Adrenaline Secretion Increase Cortisol Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ax, A., 1953, The physiological differentiation between fear and anger in humans, Psychosom. Med., 15: 433.Google Scholar
  2. Folkow, B., and Euler, U.S.v., 1954, Selective activation of noradrenaline and adrenaline producing cells in the suprarenal gland of the cat by hypothalamic stimulation, Circ. Res., 2:191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Frankenhaeuser, M., 1979, Psychoneuroendocrine approaches to the study of emotion as related to stress and coping, in: “Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1978”, H.E. Howe and R.A. Dienstbier, eds., University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  4. Frankenhaeuser, M., 1983, The sympathetic-adrenal and pituitary-adrenal response to challenge: comparison between the sexes, in: havioral Bases of Coronary Heart Disease”, T.M. Dembroski, T.H. Schmidt and G. Blumchen, eds., Karger, Basel, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Frankenhaeuser, M., Lundberg, U., and Forsman, L., 1980, Dissociation between sympathetic-adrenal and pituitary-adrenal responses to an achievement situation characterized by high controllability: Comparison between Type A and Type B males and females, Biol. Psychol., 10: 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frankenhaeuser, M., Sterky, K., and Järpe, G., 1962, Psychophysiological relations in habituation to gravitational stress, Percept. Mot. Skills, 15: 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Funkenstein, D.H., 1956, Nor-epinephrine-like and epinephrine-like substances in relation to human behavior, J. Ment. Dis., 124: 58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Henry, J.P., and Stephens, P.M., 1977, “Stress, Health, and the Social Environment. A Sociobiologic Approach to Medicine”, Springer-Verlag, New York, Heidelberg & Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoist, v.D., Fuchs, E., and Stöhr, W., 1983, Physiological changes i male Tupaia belangeri under different types of social stress, in: “Biobehavioral Bases of Coronary Heart Disease”, T.M. Dembroski, T.H. Schmidt and G. Blumchen, eds., Karger, Basel, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Kones, R.J., 1979, Emotional stress, plasma catecholamines, cardiac risk factors, and atherosclerosis. Angiology, 30: 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Levi, L., 1965, The urinary output of adrenaline and noradrenaline during pleasant and unpleasant emotional states, Psychosom. Med. 27: 80.Google Scholar
  12. Levine, S., Weinberg, J., and Brett, L.P., 1979, Inhibition of pituitary-adrenal activity as a consequence of consummatory behavior, Psychoneuroendocrinol., 4: 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lundberg, U., de Chateau, P., Winberg, J., and Frankenhaeuser, M., 1981, Catecholamine and Cortisol excretion patterns in three year old children and their parents, J. Hum. Stress, 7: 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lundberg, U., and Forsman, L., 1979, Adrenal-medullary and adrenal-cortical responses to understimulation and overstimulation: Comparison between Type A and Type B persons, Biol. Psychol., 9: 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lundberg, U., and Frankenhaeuser, M., 1980, Pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal correlates of distress and effort, J. Psychosom. Res., 24: 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Patkai, P., 1971, Catecholamine excretion in pleasant and unpleasant situations, Acta Psychol., 35: 352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sachar, E.J., 1975, Neuroendocrine abnormalities in depressive illness, in: “Topics in Psychoendocrinology”, E.J. Sachar, ed., Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Tennes, T., Downey, K., and Vernandakis, A., 1977, Urinary Cortisol excretion rates and anxiety in normal 1-year old infants, Psychosom. Med., 39: 178.Google Scholar
  19. Ursin, H., Baade, E. and Levine, S., 1978, “Psychobiology of Stress. A Study of Coping Men”, Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, and London.Google Scholar
  20. Ward, M.M., Mefford, I.N., Parker, S.D., Chesney, M.A., Taylor, C.B. Keegan, D.L., and Barchas, J.D., Epinephrine and norepinephrine responses in continuously collected human plasma to a series of stressors, Psychosom. Med., in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marianne Frankenhaeuser
    • 1
  • Ulf Lundberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology Division, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, and Department of PsychologyUniversity of StockholmStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations