Human Anxiety and Noradrenergic Function: Preliminary Studies with Caffeine, Clonidine and Yohimbine
Although several neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in the neurobiology of animal fear and human anxiety1, the focus of the present report in this regard is limited to the noradrenergic system. Several lines of evidence suggest an important role for noradrenergic function in the neurobiology of fear, anxiety, alarm and arousal (for review see Uhde et al.2,3). Redmond and Huang4 demonstrated that electrical and pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) in the monkey produced fear behaviors similar to those occurring during exposure to natural threat in the wild. In addition to these behavioral manifestations of fear during LC activation, Redmond and colleagues4,5 documented temporally-related increases in the levels of noradrenaline and its metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylethylene glycol (MHPG), in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma.
KeywordsPanic Disorder Panic Attack Noradrenergic System Panic Disorder Patient Affective Illness
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