Reorientation of the Golgi Apparatus and the Microtubule Organizing Center: Is it a Means to Polarize Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

  • Gunther Dennert
  • Abraham Kupfer
  • Carol Gay Anderson
  • S. J. Singer
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 187)


Cell-mediated cytolysis is one of the central mechanisms of immune defense and has therefore attracted much attention. The recent availability of cloned cell lines with cytolytic activity1,2 had been instrumental in understanding some of the events that lead to target cell lysis. Using negative staining and thin sectioning electronmicroscopy with clones of natural killer cells (NK) and specific H-2 restricted cytotoxic T cells (TK), we have shown that the effector cells secrete tubular structures that are inserted into target cell membranes, presumably leading to target cell destruction3,4. Previous studies by others pointed to the importance of an intact secretory system in the killer cell and the potential participation of granules in the cytolytic reaction. It was therefore hypothesized that target cell binding triggers the onset of secretion of cytolytic components from the killer ce115,6.


Natural Killer Natural Killer Cell Target Cell Effector Cell Golgi Apparatus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. Dennert and M. De Rose, Continuously proliferating Tkiller cells specific for H-2b targets: selection and characterization, J, Immunol, 116:1601 (1976).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Dennert, Cloned lines of natural killer cells, Nature (Lond) 287:47 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. R. Podack and G. Dennert, Cell-mediated cytolysis: assembly of two types of tubules with putative cytolytic function by cloned natural killer cells, Nature (Lond.) 302:442 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Dennert and E. R. Podack, Cytolysis by H-2 specific Tkiller cells. Assembly of tubular complexes on target membranes, J. Exp. Med.. 157:1483 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    O. Carpen, I. Virtanen, and E. Saksela, Ultrastructure of human natural killer cells: nature of the cytolytic contacts in relation to cellular secretion, J- Tmmnnol. 128:2691 (1982).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    O. Carpen, I. Virtanen, and E. Saksela, The cytotoxic activity of human natural killer cells requires the intact secretory apparatus, Cell. Immunol. 58:97 (1981).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Golstein, Sensitivity of cytotoxic T cells to T cell mediated cytotoxicity. Nature 252:81 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. G. Farquhar and G. E. Palade, The Golgi apparatus (complex) — (1954–1981) — from artifct to center stage, J. Cell. Biol. 91:77s (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. D. Pickett-Heaps, The evolution of the mitotic apparatus: an attempt at comparative ultrastructural cytology in dividing plant cells, Cytobios. 1:257 (1969).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Kupfer, D. Louvard, and S. J. Singer, Polarization of the Golgi apparatus and the microtubule-organizing center in cultured fibroblasts at the edge of an experimental wound, Proct 79:2603 (1982).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. E. Bergmann, A. Kupfer, and S. J. Singer, Membrane insertion at the leading edge of motile fibroblasts, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80:1367 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Louvard, H. Reggio, and G. Warren, Antibodies to the Golgi complex and the rough endoplasmic reticulum, J. Biol. Chem. 92:92 (1982).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Kupfer, G. Dennert, and S. J. Singer, Polarization of the Golgi apparatus and the microtubule organizing center within cloned natural killer cells bound to their targets, PrPC, i&fcjb-AsiiiL-gcjUUSA. 80:7224 (1983).Google Scholar
  14. A. Kupfer and G. Dennert, Reorientation of the microtubuleorganizing center and the Golgi apparatus in cloned cytotoxic lymphocytes triggered by binding to Jysable target cells (submitted).Google Scholar
  15. A. A. Rogalski and S. J. Singer, Association of elements of the Golgi apparatus with microtubules, J. Cell Biol., in press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Robbins and N. K. Gonatas, Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on HeLa cell cultures exposed to spindle inhibitors with special reference to the interphase cell, J. Histochem, Cytochem. 12:704 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. F. Warner and G. Dennert, Establishment and cloning of cell lines with natural killer activity in lymphokine- containing media. In Lymphokines, S. Mizel, editor, New York, Academic Press, Vol. 6, p. 165 (1982).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. N. Bykovskaja, A. N. Rytenko, M. O. Rauschenbach, and A. F. Bykovsky, Ultrastructural alteration of cytolytic T lymphocytes following their interaction with target cells. I. Hypertrophy and change of orientation of the Golgi apparatus, Cell Immunol.. 40:164 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. Geiger, D. Rajen, and G. Berke, Spatial relationships of microtubule-organizing centers and the contact area of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and target cells, J. Cell Biol.. 95:137 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. De Brabander, G. Geuens, R. Nuydens, R. Willebrords, and J. De Mey, Microtubule stability and assembly in living cells: the influence of metabolic inhibitors, taxol and pH, Cold Springer Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 46:227 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. A. Rogalski, J. E. Bergmann, and S. J. Singer, The effect of microtubule assembly status on the intracellular processing and surface expression of an integral protein of the plasma membrane, J. Cell Biol., in press.Google Scholar
  22. 2.
    G. Dennert, G. Yogeeswaran, and S. Yamagata, Cloned cell lines with natural killer activity. Specificity, function and cell surface markers, J. Exp. Med.. 153:545 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. P. Bradley and B. Bonavida, Mechanism of cell-mediated cytotoxicity at the single cell level. Importance of target cell structures in cytotoxic T lymphocyte- mediated antigen nonspecific lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, J. Immunol.. 129:2352 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Henkart, P. Millard, M. Henkart, and C. Reynolds, Internat. Symp. on Natural Killer Cells, Kyoto, Japan (Abstract) (1983).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. H. Russel, and C. B. Dobos, Accelerated 86Rb+(K+) releasefrom the cytotoxic T lymphocyte is a physiologic event associated with delivery of the lethal hit, J. Immunol.. 131:1138 (1983).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunther Dennert
    • 1
  • Abraham Kupfer
    • 2
  • Carol Gay Anderson
    • 1
  • S. J. Singer
    • 2
  1. 1.School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations