Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigens: Regulation of Lymphocyte Adhesions in Vitro and Immunity in Vivo
Antibodies to most cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) external membrane antigens have no effect on CTL-mediated killing in the absence of complement. However, antibodies which do inhibit killing have now been identified for 7 distinct molecular sites. Antibodies to 6 of these “lymphocyte function-associated antigens” (LFAs, also called “blocking sites”) inhibit when bound to the CTL, and to the 7th, when bound to the target cell. Mouse homologs have been identified for only 4 of the 7 human LFAs. 5 (probably 6) of the blocking sites inhibit by interfering with adhesion formation between the CTL and the target cell; the exception is T3. None of the presently identified blocking sites are believed to be lethal hit structures (CTL “toxin”).
Reduction of target cell H-2 alloantigen density by pretreatment with papain reduces CTL-target functional “affinity”, and increases susceptibility to inhibition 100-fold for anti-Lyt- 2,3 and 10-fold for anti-LFA-1. This is consistent with the hypothesis that Lyt-2,3 aids in recognition of class 1 MHC antigens, perhaps by strengthening intercellular adhesion.
On the other hand, LFA-1 appears to function differently. Trypsin pretreatment of target cells has little effect on MHC antigens or CTL-target affinity, yet still increases by 10-fold susceptibility to inhibition by anti-LFA-1. This is seen in both
human and mouse CTL systems. These results suggest the existence of a non-MHC target structure which participates in the adhesion- strengthening function of LFA-1, and which is trypsin (and papain) sensitive: the “trypsin-sensitive counter blocker” (TSCB). LFA-3 may be the human TSCB.
The roles of these LFAs in intercellular adhesion extend to more general cell adhesions. Anti-LFA-1 and ainti-LFA-3 weaken the spontaneous adhesions which form between cells of the human B cell line JY. These homotypic adhesions are not initiated by immunologic recognition.
Anti-LFA-1 is more potent at prolonging allograft survival in vivo than are anti-Lyt-2,3, anti-T200, anti-Thy-1, or anti-I-A. Thus, the potent anti-adhesion properties of LFA-1 seen in vitro may lead to useful immunotherapy in the clinic.
KeywordsTarget Cell Blocking Site Immunologic Recognition Bean Trypsin Inhibitor Homotypic Adhesion
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