The Conditional Psychogalvanic Reflex: Its Contribution to Psychiatric Diagnosis

  • Leo Alexander


The absence or a marked diminution and delay of the positive conditional psychogalvanic reflex (PGR) with reduced differentiation between or paradoxical reversal of the responses to excitatory and inhibitory stimuli is an objective positive diagnostic sign of organic or toxic disturbance of the nervous system, chronic schizophrenia, or depression. By contrast, neurotic anxiety states show enhanced responses with poor differentiation and other excitatory generalization phenomena. Acute schizophrenic reactions, however, are characteristically associated with marked, precise responses showing better than average differentiation between excitatory and inhibitory stimuli.


Conditional Stimulus Poor Differentiation Conditional Signal Physical Pain Chronic Schizophrenia 
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© Plenum Press Inc. 1962

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  • Leo Alexander

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