Neural Correlates of Psychophysiological Developments in the Young Organism

  • Arnold B. Scheibel
  • R. J. Ellingson
  • Williamina A. Himwich
  • Scheibel


The present data represent one phase of a long-term investigation of the brain stem reticular core and its relation to certain ego functions in which the investigator and his wife have been involved for some years [1–5]. The immediate goal of this study has been an examination of those structural-functional substrates which might underlie psychophysiological development in the newborn. More specifically, and of greater pertinence to the neuropsychiatrist, we have sought developmental clues to mechanisms subserving awareness and the selection of certain sensory data from much more extensive presentations. Although answers to the second problem are not yet obvious, it appears that the form and degree of maturity of the brain significantly determine its ability to respond to, or ignore, certain modes of stimuli. Additionally, with maturation may come loss of ability to react to certain types of stimuli, a suggestion which has been advanced in a different context and on purely clinical grounds by some psychoanalysts [6].


Reticular Formation Conditioning Procedure Cortical Response Apical Dendrite Fourth Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Scheibel, A. B.: On detailed connections of the medullary and pontine reticular formation, Anat. Rec. 109: 85, 1951.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Scheibel, M. E.: Axonal efferent patterns in the bulbar reticular formation, ibid. 121: 362, 1955.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scheibel, M. E., Scheibel, A. B., Mollica, H., and Moruzzi, G.: Convergence and interaction of afferent impulses on single units of reticular formation, J. Neurophysiol. 18: 309, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scheibel, M. E., and Scheibel, A. B.: Hallucinations and the brain stem reticular core, in West, L. J., ed.: Symposium on Hallucinations, Grune & Stratton, Inc., New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Scheibel, M. E., and Scheibel, A. B.: Development of reticulo-cortical control in the newborn, Am. Acad. Neurol. 29, 1959 (oral report).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sullivan, H. S.: Conceptions of modern psychiatry, The William Alanson White Psychiatric Foundation, Washington, D. C. 1947.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schade, J. P.: Origin of the spontaneous electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. in Wortis, J., Ed.: Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry, Vol. I I, Grune & Stratton, Inc., New York, 1960.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Purpura, D., Carmichael, M. W., and Housepian, E. M.: Physiological and anatomical studies of development of superficial axodendritic synaptic pathways in neocortex, Exp. Neurol. 2: 324, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schade, J., and Baxter, C.: Changes during growth in the volume and surface area of cortical neurons in the rabbit, ibid. 2: 158, 1960.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Scheibel, M. E., and Scheibel, A. B.: Discussion in Symposium on Dendrites, EEG Clin. Neurophys., Suppl. No. 10, 1958.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moruzzi, G., and Magoun, H. W.: Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG, ibid. 5: 1, 1949.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ramon y Cajal, S.: Histologie du systeme nerveux de l’homme et des vertebres, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (reprinted ), Madrid, 1952.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gray, E.G.: Axo-somatic and axo-dendritic synapses of the cerebral cortex: an electron microscope study, J. Anat. 93: 420, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fox, C.: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ellingson, R. J.: Cortical electrical responses to visual stimulation in the human infant, EEG Clin. Neurophys. 12: 663, 1960.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Desmedt, J. 4., and LaGrutta, G.: Control of brain potentials by pseudo-cholinesterase, J. Phÿsiol. (London) 129: 46, 1955.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marty, R., Contamin, F., and Scherrer, J.: Cortical response to photic stimulation in a newborn cat, ibid. 10: 761, 1958.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grossman, C.: Electro-ontogenesis of cerebral activity. Forms of neonatal responses and their recurrence in epileptic discharges, A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 74: 186, 1955.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rose, J. E., Adrian, H., and Santibanez, G.: Electrical signs of maturation in the auditory system of the kitten, Acta Neurol. Latinoamer. 3: 133, 1957.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCulloch, W. S., Lettvin, J. Y., Pitts, W. H., and Dell, P. C.: An electrical hypothesis of central inhibition and facilitation, Res. Publ. Ass. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 30: 87, 1950.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eccles, J. C.: The Neurophysiological Basis of Mind, Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1953.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vogt, C., and Vogt, O.: Personal communication.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press Inc. 1962

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arnold B. Scheibel
  • R. J. Ellingson
  • Williamina A. Himwich
  • Scheibel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations