Temperature Measurement

  • Thomas C. Cetas


Thermometry began with the development of the air thermometer in the early seventeenth century by Santorio Santorre (Sanctorius).(1) Sanctorius attached a scale to the measurement of heat and cold and went on to record seasonal changes as well as body temperatures obtained by putting the patient’s mouth or hand around the air bulb of the thermometer. An early observation was that body temperature was quite stable, although it tended to rise quickly and to a high level if the patients were not feeling well. It took another 150 years to develop a practical, calibrated thermometer that would provide repeatable measurements in people. The historical development of the thermometer has been given by Middleton(1); a review of modern developments, especially as they relate to heat therapy has recently been published by Cetas.(2) A useful source of thermometry information, encompassing a broad spectrum from fundamental scale definition to practical problems, is the series Temperature,(3) which appears approximately once each decade. The fundamentals of thermometry are reviewed by Quinn and Compton(4) and more recently by Hudson.(5)


Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Ultrasonic Field Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer Strong Electromagnetic Field Standard Thermometer 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. Cetas
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Radiation OncologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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