Toward a Comparative Psychology of Self-Awareness: Species Limitations and Cognitive Consequences

  • Gordon G. GallupJr.


The first published report of mirror self-recognition in a nonhuman appeared in the literature several decades ago (Gallup, 1970). Subsequent to the original demonstration in chimpanzees, a large number of different species have been tested for their ability to correctly decipher mirrored information about themselves, but to date, positive results have only been obtained with humans, chimpanzees, and orangutans. Recent reviews of this literature can be found in Anderson (1984), Gallup (1987), and Povinelli (1987).


Rhesus Monkey Japanese Macaque Capuchin Monkey Comparative Psychology Gorilla Gorilla 
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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1991

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  • Gordon G. GallupJr.

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