Disorders of Self: Myths, Metaphors, and the Demand Characteristics of Treatment

  • Martin T. Orne
  • Nancy K. Bauer-Manley


Poets and philosophers have long been aware that the healthy individual’s personality or “self” is far from a monolithic structure free of inconsistencies and ambivalence, and the myth of the truly consistent self has been thoroughly challenged as well by the social and behavioral sciences. William James and the early self theorists (see Cooley, 1902; James, 1890) realized that much emotion, and indeed, much motivation, results from inconsistencies and conflicts within the self and especially within the self-concept. George Herbert Mead (1934) followed their lead in recognizing that not only is the self complex and to some degree conflicted, but it also is necessarily malleable by virtue of its variety of social contexts; fluid interactions between the individual and his or her social environment continually shape and modify the self.


Demand Characteristic Multiple Personality Professional Skepticism Transactional Analysis Multiple Personality Disorder 
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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin T. Orne
  • Nancy K. Bauer-Manley

There are no affiliations available

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