Advertisement

Fish Behaviour and the Management of Freshwater Fisheries

  • K. O’Hara

Abstract

The management of freshwater fish for human benefit is undertaken on differing levels throughout the world. In the industrialised countries, freshwater fish are often principally exploited for recreational purposes, whereas in developing countries food production is paramount. In this latter case the detail of what constitutes a fishery, and what are the requirements of the user (Larkin 1980), may be secondary to the more formal management objectives of assessing the fish yield of a water body. Nevertheless, all managers must be aware of the behaviour of their target species, whether this relates to, for example, how vulnerable the fish are to angling, or the success of an artificial reef in acting as a fish attractor.

Keywords

Atlantic Salmon Brown Trout Grass Carp Fishery Management Brook Trout 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alabaster, J.S. and Lloyd, R. (1983) Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish, Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold, G.P. (1974) ‘Rheotropism in Fishes’, Biological Reviews, 49, 515–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bachman, R.A. (1984) ‘Foraging Behavior of Free-ranging Wild and Hatchery Brown Trout in a Stream’, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 113, 1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Backiel, T. and Le Cren, E.D. (1978) ‘Some Density Relationships for Fish Population Parameters’, in S.D. Gerking (ed.), Ecology of Freshwater Fish Production, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 279–302Google Scholar
  5. Bagenal, T.B. and Tesch, F.W. (1978) ‘Age and Growth’, in T.B. Bagenal (ed.), Methods for the Assessment of Fish Production in Fresh Waters, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 101–36Google Scholar
  6. Baker, R.R. (1978) The Evolutionary Ecology of Animal Migration, Hodder and Stoughton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Baltz, D.M. and Moyle, P.B. (1984) ‘Segregation by Species and Size Classes of Rainbow Trout’, Salmo gairdneri, and Sacramento Sucker, Catostomus occidentalis, in Three California Streams’, Environmental Biology of Fishes, 10, 101–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banks, J.W. (1969) ‘A Review of the Literature on the Upstream Migrations of Adult Salmonids’, Journal of Fish Biology, 1, 85–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bardach, J.E., Magnusson, J.J., May, R.B. and Reinhart, J.N. (1980) (eds) Fish Behavior and its Use in the Capture and Culture of Fishes, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnard, C.J. (1983) Animal Behaviour, Croom Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennett, G.W. (1971) Management of Lakes and Ponds, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Beukema, J.J. (1970) ‘Angling Experiments with Carp, 2. Decreasing Catchability through One-trial Learning’, Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 20, 81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Binns, N.A. and Eiserman, F.M. (1979) ‘Quantification of Fluvial Trout Habitat in Wyoming’, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 108, 215–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borgeson, D.P. (1979) ‘Controlling Predator-Prey Relationships in Streams’, in R.H. Stroud and H. Clepper (eds), Predator-Prey Systems in Fisheries Management, Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, DC, pp. 425–30Google Scholar
  15. Bowen, S.H. (1983) ‘Detritivory in Neotropical Fish Communities’, Environmental Biology of Fishes, 9, 137–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brannon, E.L. and Salo, E.O. (1982) (eds) Proceedings of the Salmon and Trout Migratory Behavior Symposium, University of WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  17. Brookes, A., Gregory, K.J. and Dawson, F.H. (1983) ‘An Assessment of River Channelization in England and Wales’, The Science of the Total Environment, 27, 97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chapman, C.A. and Mackay, W.C. (1984) ‘Versatility in Habitat Use by a Top Aquatic Predator, Esox lucius L.’, Journal of Fish Biology, 25, 109–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper, E.L. (1980) ‘Fisheries Management in Streams’, in R.T. Lackey and L.A. Nielsen (eds), Fisheries Management, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 297–322Google Scholar
  20. Cresswell, R.C. (1981) ‘Post-stocking Movements and Recapture of Hatchery-Reared Trout Released into Flowing Waters — a Review’, Journal of Fish Biology, 18, 429–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donald, D.B. and Anderson, R.S. (1982) ‘Importance of Environment and Stocking Density for Growth of Rainbow Trout in Mountain Lakes’, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 111, 675–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Durocher, P.P., Provine, W.C. and Kraai, J.E. (1984) ‘Relationship between Abundance of Largemouth Bass and Submerged Vegetation in Texas Reservoirs’, Nàrth American Journal of Fisheries Management, 4, 84–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Edwards, C.J., Griswold, B.L., Tubb, R.A., Weber, E.C. and Woods, L.C. (1984) ‘Mitigating Effects of Artificial Riffles and Pools on the Fauna of a Channelized Warmwater Stream’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 4, 194–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Egglishaw, H.J. and Shackley, P.E. (1980) ‘Survival and Growth of Salmon, Salmo salar (L.), Planted in a Scottish Stream’, Journal of Fish Biology, 16, 565–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ersbak, K. and Haase, B.L. (1983) ‘Nutritional Deprivation after Stocking as a Possible Mechanism Leading to Mortality in Stream-stocked Brook Trout’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 3, 142–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Everhart, W.H. and Youngs, W.D. (1981) Principles of Fishery Science, Cornell University PressGoogle Scholar
  27. Fraser, J.C. (1975) ‘Determining Discharges for Fluvial Resources’, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 143Google Scholar
  28. Gardner, M.L.G. (1976) ‘A Review of Factors which May Influence the Sea-age and Maturation of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar L.’, Journal of Fish Biology, 9, 289–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gauthreaux, S.A. (1980) Animal Migration, Orientation and Navigation, Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Goodyear, C.P. (1980) ‘Compensation in Fish Populations’, in C.H. Hocutt and J.R. Stauffer (eds), Biological Monitoring of Fish, Lexington Books, Toronto, pp. 253–80Google Scholar
  31. Grimm, M.P. (1981a), ‘The Composition of Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.) Populations in Four Shallow Waters in The Netherlands, with Special Reference to Factors Influencing 0+ Pike Biomass’, Fisheries Management, 12, 61–76Google Scholar
  32. Grimm, M.P. (1981b) Intraspecific Predation as a Principal Factor Controlling the Biomass of Northern Pike (Esox Lucius L.)’, Fisheries Management, 12, 77–79Google Scholar
  33. Harden-Jones, F.R. (1968) Fish Migration, Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Harris, G.S. (1978) (ed.) Salmon Propagation in England and Wales, National Water Council, 1 Queen Anne’s Gate, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Hart, P.J.B. and Pitcher, T.J. (1973) ‘Population Densities and Growth of Five Species of Fish in the River Nene, Northamptonshire’, Fisheries Management, 4, 69–86Google Scholar
  36. Hartzler, J.R. (1983) ‘The Effects of Half-log Covers on Angler Harvest and Standing Crop of Brown Trout in McMichaels Creek, Pennsylvania’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 31, 228–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hasler, A.D. and Scholz, A.T. (1983) Olfactory Imprinting and Homing in Salmon, Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heidinger, R.C. (1977) ‘Potential of the Threadfin Shad as a Forage Fish in Midwestern Power Cooling Reservoirs’, Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 70, 15–25Google Scholar
  39. Helfman, G.S. (1983) ‘Underwater Methods’, in L.A. Nielsen and D.L. Johnson (eds), Fisheries Techniques, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp. 349–69Google Scholar
  40. Hermansen, H. and Krog, C. (1984) ‘Influence of Physical Factors on Density of Stocked Brown Trout (Salmo trutta fario L.) in a Danish Lowland Stream’, Fisheries Management, 15, 107–15Google Scholar
  41. Horn, H.S. and Rubenstein, D.I. (1984) ‘Behavioural Adaptations and Life History’, in J.R. Krebs and N.B. Davies (eds), Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, 2nd ed, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 279–98Google Scholar
  42. Hunt, P.C. and Jones, J.W. (1974a) ‘A Population Study of Barbus barbus (L.) in the River Severn, England. I. Densities’, Journal of Fish Biology, 6, 255–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hunt, P.C. and Jones, J.W. (1974b) ‘A Population Study of Barbus barbus (L.) in the River Severn, England. II. Movements’, Journal of Fish Biology, 6, 269–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hunt, R.L. (1969) ‘Effects of Habitat Alteration on Production Standing Crops and Yield of Brook Trout in Lawrence Creek, Wisconsin’, in Symposium on Salmon and Trout in Streams, H.R. MacMillan Lectures in Fisheries, 1968. University of British Columbia, Canada, pp. 281–312Google Scholar
  45. Huntingford, F. (1984) The Study of Animal Behaviour, Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hynes, H.B.N. (1970) The Ecology of Running Waters, Liverpool University Press, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  47. Jones, A.N. (1975) ‘A Preliminary Study of Fish Segregation in Salmon Spawning Streams’, Journal of Fish Biology, 7, 95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Karr, J.R. (1981) ‘Assessment of Biotic Integrity Using Fish Communities’, Fisheries (Bethesda, Maryland), 6, (6) 21–27Google Scholar
  49. Keenleyside, M.H.A. (1979) Diversity and Adaptation in Fish Behaviour, Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kennedy, G.J.A. (1984) ‘The Ecology of Salmonid Habitat Re-instatement Following River Drainage Schemes’, Proceedings of the Institute of Fishery Management Study Course, Northern Ireland Branch, New University of Ulster, Coleraine, pp. 1–25Google Scholar
  51. Kennedy, G.J.A., Strange, C.D., Anderson, R.J.D. and Johnston, P.M. (1984) ‘Experiments on the Descent and Feeding of Hatchery-reared Salmon Smolts (Salmo salar L.) in the River Bush’, Fisheries Management, 15, 15–25Google Scholar
  52. Kerr, S.R. and Werner, E.E. (1980) ‘Niche Theory in Fisheries Ecology’, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 109, 254–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kurzawski, K.F. and Heidinger, R.C. (1982) ‘The Cyclic Stocking of Parentals in a Farm Pond to Produce a Population of Male Bluegill X Female Green Sunfish F, Hybrids and Male Redear Sunfish x Female Green Sunfish F, Hybrids’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 2, 188–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lamarra, V.A. (1975) ‘Digestive Activities of Carp as a Major Contributor to the Nutrient Loading of Lakes’, Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, 19, 2461–8Google Scholar
  55. Langford, T.E. (1983) Electricity Generation and the Ecology of Natural Waters, Liverpool University Press, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  56. Larkin, P.A. (1980) ‘Objectives of Management’, in R.T. Lackey and L.A. Nielsen (eds), Fisheries Management, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 245–62Google Scholar
  57. Leah, R.T., Moss, B. and Forrest, D.E. (1980) ‘The Role of Predation in Causing Major Changes in the Limnology of a Hyper-eutrophic Lake’, Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie and Hydrographie, 65, 223–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Le Cren, E.D., Kipling, C. and McCormack, J.C. (1977) ‘A Study of the Number, Biomass and Year-Classes Strengths of Perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in Windermere from 1941 to 1966’, Journal of Animal Ecology, 46, 281–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McCammon, G.W. and Geldern, C.R. von Jr (1979) ‘Predator-Prey Systems in Large Reservoirs’, in R.H. Stroud and H. Clepper (eds), Predator-Prey Systems in Fisheries Management, Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, DC, pp. 431–42Google Scholar
  60. McKeown, B.A. (1984) Fish Migration, Croom Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
  61. McLeave, J.D., Arnold, G.P., Dodson, J.J. and Neill, W.H. (1984) (eds) Mechanisms of Migration in Fishes, Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. McNicol, R.F. and Noakes, D.L.G. (1984) ‘Environmental Influences on Territoriality of Juvenile Brook Charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, in a Stream Environment’, Environmental Biology of Fishes, 10, 29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Magnuson, J.J., Crowder, L.B. and Medvick, P.A. (1979) ‘Temperature as an Ecological Resource’, American Zoologist, 19, 331–43Google Scholar
  64. Marcucella, H. and Abramson, C.I. (1978) ‘Behavioral Toxicology and Teleost Fish’, in D.I. Mostofsky (ed.), The Behavior of Fish and other Aquatic Animals, Academic Press, London, pp. 33–77Google Scholar
  65. Marrin, D.L. and Erman, E.C. (1982) ‘Evidence against Competition between Trout and Nongame Fishes in Stampede Reservoir, California’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 2, 262–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mills, C.P.R. and Piggins, D.J. (1983) ‘The Release of Reared Salmon Smolts (Salmo salar) into the Burrishoole River System (Western Ireland) and their Contribution to the Rod and Line Fishery’, Fisheries Management, 14, 165–75Google Scholar
  67. Mills, D. (1971) Salmon and Trout, Oliver and Boyd, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  68. Moring, J.R. (1982) ‘An Efficient Hatchery Strain of Rainbow Trout for Stocking Oregon Streams’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 2, 209–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mortensen, E. (1977) ‘Density Dependent Mortality of Trout Fry (Salmo trutta L.) and its Relationship to the Management of Small Streams’, Journal of Fish Biology, 11, 613–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mosher, T.D. (1983) ‘Effects of Artificial Circulation on Fish Distribution and Angling Success for Channel Catfish in a Small Prairie Lake’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 3, 403–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mundy, P.R. (1982) ‘Computation of Migratory Timing Statistics for Adult Chinook Salmon in the Yukon River, Alaska, and their Relevance to Fisheries Management’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 2, 359–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nakashima, B.S. and Leggett, W.C. (1980) ‘The Role of Fishes in the Regulation of Phosphorus Availability in Lakes’, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 37, 1540–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nelson, R.W., Horak, G.C. and Olson, J.E. (1978) Western Reservoir and Stream Habitat Improvements Handbook, Fish and Wildlife Service, US, Department of the InteriorGoogle Scholar
  74. Ney, J.J. (1980) ‘Evolution of Forage Fish Management in Lakes and Reservoirs’, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 110, 725–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nilsson, N-A. (1978) The Role of Size-biased Predation in Competition and Interactive Segregation in Fish’, in S.D. Gerking (ed.), Ecology of Freshwater Fish Production, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 303–25Google Scholar
  76. Noble, R.L. (1980) ‘Management of Lakes, Reservoirs, and Ponds’, in R.T. Lackey, and L.A. Nielsen (eds), Fisheries Management, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 265–95Google Scholar
  77. Northcote, T.G. (1978) ‘Migratory Strategies and Production in Freshwater Fishes’, in S.D. Gerking (ed.), Ecology of Freshwater Fish Production, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 326–59Google Scholar
  78. Persson, L. (1983a) ‘Food Consumption and the Significance of Detritus and Algae to Intraspecific Competition in Roach Rutilus rutilus in a Shallow Eutrophic Lake’, Oikos, 41, 118–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Persson, L. (1983b) ‘Effects of Intra-and Interspecific Competition on Dynamics and Size Structure of a Perch Percha fluviatilis and Roach Rutilus rutilus Population’, Oikos, 41, 126–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Peterson, N.C. and Cederholm, C.J. (1984) ‘A Comparison of the Removal and Mark-Recapture Methods of Population Estimation for Juvenile Coho Salmon in Small Streams’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 4, 99–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pitcher, T.J. (1980) ‘Some Ecological Consequences of Fish School Volumes’, Freshwater Biology, 10, 539–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pratten, D.J. and Shearer, W.M. (1983a) ‘Sea Trout of the River North Esk’, Fisheries Management, 14, 49–65Google Scholar
  83. Pratten, D.J. and Shearer, W.A. (1983b) ‘The Migration of North Esk Sea Trout’, Fisheries Management, 14, 99–113Google Scholar
  84. Prince, E.D. and Maughan, O.E. (1978) ‘Freshwater Artificial Reefs: Biology and Economics’, Fisheries (Bethesda, Maryland), 3 (1), 5–9Google Scholar
  85. Regier, H.A., Paloheimo, J.E. and Gallucci, V.F. (1979) ‘Factors that Influence the Abundance of Large Piscivorous Fish’, in R.H. Stroud and H. Clepper (eds), Predator-Prey Systems in Fisheries Management, Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, DC, pp. 333–41Google Scholar
  86. Rimmer, D.M., Paim, V. and Saunders, R.L. (1984) ‘Changes in the Selection of Microhabitat by Juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at the Summer-Autumn Transition in a Small River’, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 41, 469–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Roff, D.A. (1973) ‘An Examination of Some Statistical Tests Used in the Analysis of Mark-recapture Data’, Oecologia (Berlin), 12, 35–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sambrook, H. (1983) ‘Homing of Sea Trout in the River Fowey Catchment, Cornwall’, Proceedings of the Third British Freshwater Fisheries Conference, Liverpool University, England pp. 30–40Google Scholar
  89. Saunders, R.L. (1981) ‘Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Stocks and Management Implications in the Canadian Atlantic Provinces, and New England, USA’, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 38, 1612–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schaffer, W.M. and Elson, P.F. (1975) ‘The Adaptive Significance of Variations in Life History among Local Populations of Atlantic Salmon in North America’, Ecology, 56, 577–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schreck, C.B. (1981) ‘Stress and Compensation in Teleostean Fishes: Response to Social and Physical Factors’, in A.D. Pickering (ed.), Stress and Fish, Academic Press, London, pp. 295–321Google Scholar
  92. Seber, G.A.F. (1973) The Estimation of Animal Abundance and Related Parameters, Griffin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  93. Shirvell, C.S. and Dungey, R.G. (1983) ‘Microhabitats Chosen by Brown Trout for Feeding and Spawning in Rivers’, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 112, 355–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sloane, R.D. (1984) ‘Preliminary Observations of the Migrating Adult Freshwater Eels (Anguilla australis australis Richardson) in Tasmania’, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 35, 471–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stein, R.A. (1979) ‘Behavioral Response of Prey to Fish Predators’, in R.H. Stroud and H. Clepper (eds), Predator-Prey Systems in Fisheries Management, Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, DC, pp. 343–53Google Scholar
  96. Steinmetz, B. (1983) ‘Management of Fish Stocks in The Netherlands and the Need for Planning’, in J.H. Grover (ed.) Allocation of Fishery Resources, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, pp. 384–95Google Scholar
  97. Stevens, D.E. and Miller, L.W. (1983) ‘Effects of River Flow on Abundance of Young Chinook Salmon, American Shad, Longfin, Smelt, and Delta Smelt in the Sacramento-San Joaquin, River System’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 3, 425–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Stott, B. and Russell, I.C. (1979) ‘An Estimate of a Fish Population that Proved to be Wrong’, Fisheries Management, 10, 169–71Google Scholar
  99. Stroud, R.H. and Clepper, H. (1979) Predator-Prey Systems in Fisheries Management, Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  100. Swales, S. (1982a) ‘Environmental Effects of River Channel Works Used in Land Drainage Improvement’, Journal of Environmental Management, 14, 103–26Google Scholar
  101. Swales, S. (1982b) ‘Impacts of Weed-cutting on Fisheries: an Experimental Study in a Small Lowland River’, Fisheries Management, 13, 125–37Google Scholar
  102. Swales, S. and O’Hara, K. (1980) Instream Habitat Improvement Devices and their Use in Freshwater Fisheries Management’, Journal of Environmental Management, 10, 167–79Google Scholar
  103. Swales, S. and O’Hara, K. (1983) ‘A Short-term Study of the Effects of a Habitat Improvement Programme on the Distribution and Abundance of Fish Stocks in a Small Lowland River in Shropshire’, Fisheries Management, 14, 135–44Google Scholar
  104. Tesch, F-W. (1977) The Eel: Biology and Management of Anguillid Eels, Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  105. Thorpe, J.E. (1980) (ed) Salmon Ranching, Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  106. Tytler, P. and Holliday, F.G.T. (1984) ‘Temporal and Spatial Relationships in the Movements of Loch Dwelling Brown Trout, Salmo trutta L., Recorded by Ultrasonic Tracking for 24 Hours’, Journal of Fish Biology, 24, 691–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tyus, H.M., Burdick, B.D. and McAda, C.W. (1984) ‘Use of Radiotelemetry for Obtaining Habitat Preference Data on Colorado Squawfish’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 4, 177–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wankowsky, J.W.J. (1981) ‘Behavioural Aspects of Predation by Juvenile Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) on Particular Drifting Prey’, Animal Behaviour, 29, 557–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Weatherley, A.H. (1972) Growth and Ecology of Fish Populations, Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  110. Welcomme, R.L. (1979) Fisheries Ecology of Floodplain Rivers, Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  111. Welcomme, R.L., Kohler, C.C. and Courtenay, W.R. (1983) ‘Stock Enhancement in the Management of Freshwater Fisheries: a European Perspective’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 31, 265–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Werner, E.E., Mittelback, G.G. Hall, D.J. and Gilliam, J.F. (1983a) ‘Experimental Tests of Optimal Habitat Use in Fish: the Role of Relative Habitat Profitability’, Ecology, 64, 1525–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Werner, E.E., Gilliam, J.F., Hall, D.J. and Mittelbach, G.G. (1983b) ‘An Experimental Test of the Effects of Predation Risk on Habitat Use in Fish’, Ecology, 64, 1540–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wiley, M.J., Gorden, R.W., Waite, S.W. and Powless, T. (1984) ‘The Relationship between Aquatic Macrophytes and Sport Fish Production in Illinois Ponds: a Simple Model’, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 4, 111–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Winter, J.D. (1983) ‘Underwater Biotelemetry’, in L.A. Nielsen and D.L. Johnson (eds), Fisheries Techniques, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp. 371–95Google Scholar
  116. Zalewski, M. (1983) ‘The Influence of Fish Community Structure on the Efficiency of Electrofishing’, Fisheries Management, 14, 177–86Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Tony J. Pitcher 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. O’Hara

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations