The Current Status of Trace Element Speciation Studies in Natural Waters

  • G. E. Batley
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 6)


Biochemists have long been aware that the assimilation by the human body of essential trace elements takes place in certain preferred chemical forms. Cobalamin, the glucose tolerance factor, and heme iron, for example, are the favoured forms of cobalt, chromium, and iron, respectively. Elements may be classified as either essential, such as Cu, Zn, Cr, Mo, V, Mn, Sn, Fe, Ni, Co, and Se or non-essential, Ag, Cd, Hg, Tl, Pb and As. Excesses of either class can be toxic, although in general, the non-essential elements are of greater toxicity, and as with bioavailability, this toxicity will be a function of chemical form.


Humic Acid Natural Water Fulvic Acid High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Metal Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, D.M., and Morel, F.M.M., 1978, Copper sensitivity of Gonyaulax tamarensis, Limnol. Oceanogr., 23: 283.Google Scholar
  2. Andrew, R.W., Biesinger, K.E., and Glass, G.E., 1977, Effects of inorganic complexing on the toxicity of copper to Daphnia magna, Water Res., 11: 309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon.,1980, Metallothionein in trace metal metabolism, Nutr. Rev., 38: 286.Google Scholar
  4. Baier, R.W., 1977, Lead distribution in the Cape Fear River estuary, J. Environ. Qual., 6: 205.Google Scholar
  5. Batley, G.E., 1981, Electroanalytical techniques for the determination of heavy metals in seawater, Mar. Chem., in press.Google Scholar
  6. Batley, G.E.,and Farrar, Y.J., 1978, Irradiation techniques for the release of bound heavy metals in natural waters and blood, Anal. Chim. Acta., 99: 288.Google Scholar
  7. Batley, G.E.,and Florence, T.M., 1974, An evaluation and comparison of some techniques of anodic stripping voltammetry, J. Electroanal. Chem., 55: 23.Google Scholar
  8. Batley, G.E., and Florence, T.M., 1976, Determination of the chemical forms of dissolved cadmium, lead and copper in seawater, Mar. Chem., 4: 347.Google Scholar
  9. Batley, G.E., and Gardner, D., 1978, A study of copper, lead and cadmium speciation in some estuarine and coastal marine waters, Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci., 7: 59.Google Scholar
  10. Benes, P., and Steinnes, E., 1974, In situ dialysis for the determination of the state of trace elements in natural waters, Water Res., 8: 947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benes, P., and Steinnes, E., 1975, Migration forms of trace elements in natural fresh waters and the effect of the water storage, Water Res., 9: 741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Betz, M., 1979, Separation of naturally occurring high molecular weight complexes from seawater, Mar. Chem., 7: 165.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, S.D., and Kowalski, B.R., 1974, Pseudopolarographic determination of metal complex stability constants in dilute solution by rapid scan anodic stripping voltammetry, Anal. Chem., 51: 2133.Google Scholar
  14. Cassidy, R.M., and Elchuck, S., 1980, Trace enrichment methods for the determination of metal ions by high performance liquid chromatography, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 18: 217.Google Scholar
  15. Chau, Y.K., and Wong, P.T.S., 1981, Some environmental aspects of organo-arsenic, lead and tin. Proceedings of a N.B.S. Workshop on Environmental Speciation and Monitoring Needs for Trace Metal Containing Substances from Energy-Related Processes, Washington, D.C., 1981, in press.Google Scholar
  16. Davis, J.A., and Leckie, J.O., 1978, Effect of adsorbed complexing liquids on trace metal uptake by hydrous oxides, Environ. Sci. Technol., 12: 1309.Google Scholar
  17. Figura, P., and McDuffie, B., 1980, Determination of the labilities of soluble trace metal species in aqueous environmental samples by anodic stripping voltammetry and Chelex column and batch methods, Anal. Chem., 52: 1433.Google Scholar
  18. Filby, R.H., Shah, K.R., and Funk, W.H., 1974, Role of neutron act- ivation analysis in the study of heavy metal pollution of a lake-river system, in: “Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Nuclear Methods in Environ. Res.”, J.R. Vogt and W. Meyer, eds., NTIS, Springfield, Va.Google Scholar
  19. Florence, T.M., 1977, Trace metal species in fresh waters, Water Res., 11: 681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Florence, T.M., and Batley, G.E., 1980, Chemical speciation in natural waters, CRC Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem., 9: 219.Google Scholar
  21. Florence, T.M., and Batley, G.E., 1981, A new scheme for chemical speciation of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in seawater, in: “Proceedings of an International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment”, Amsterdam, in press.Google Scholar
  22. Foster, E.O., and Morris, A.W., 1971, The seasonal variations of dissolved ionic and organically associated copper in the Menni Straits, Deep-Sea Res., 18: 231.Google Scholar
  23. Giesy, J.P., and Briese, L.A., 1977, Trace metal transport by particulates and organic carbon in two South Carolina streams. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 20: 1401.Google Scholar
  24. Gjessing, E.T., 1965, Use of “Sephadex” gel for the estimation of molecular weight of humic substances in natural water, Nature, 208: 1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gnassia-Barelli, M., Romeo, M., Laumond, F., and Pesando, D., 1978, Experimental studies on the relationship between natural copper complexes and their toxicity to phytoplankton, Mar. Biol., 47: 15.Google Scholar
  26. Great Lakes Science Advisory Board, 1980, International Joint Commission Report of the Aquatic Ecosystem Objectives Committee, pp. 63.Google Scholar
  27. Green, D.E., Fry, M., and Blondin, G.A., 1980, Phospholipids as the molecular instruments of ion and solute transport in biological membranes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77: 257.Google Scholar
  28. Harrison, R.M., and Laxen, D.P.H., 1980, Physicochemical speciation of lead in drinking water, Nature, 286: 791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hart, B.T., and Davies, S.H., 1977a, A new dialysis-ion exchange technique for determining the forms of trace metals in water. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., 28: 105.Google Scholar
  30. Hart, B.T., and Davies, S.H., 1977b, A batch method for the determination of ion-exchangeable trace metals in natural waters. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., 28: 397.Google Scholar
  31. Hart, B.T., and Davies, S.H., 1981, Trace metal speciation in the freshwater and estuarine regions of the Yarra River, Victoria, Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci., 12: 353.Google Scholar
  32. Harvey, G.R., Boren, D.A., and Tokar, J.M., 1981, Structures of seawater fulvic and humic acids derived from proton NMR studies and historical data, Mar. Chem., in press.Google Scholar
  33. Hoffman, M.R., Yost, E.C., Eisenreich, S.J., and Maier, W.J., 1981, Characterization of soluble and colloid-phase metal complexes in river water by ultrafiltration. A mass-balance approach, Environ. Sci. Technol., 15: 655.Google Scholar
  34. Jackson, G.A., and Morgan, J.J., 1978, Trace metal-chelator interactions and phytoplankton growth in seawater media: Theoretical analysis and comparison with reported observations, Limnol. Oceanogr., 23: 268.Google Scholar
  35. Jenne, E.A., ed., 1979, Chemical modeling in aqueous systems-speciation, sorption, solubility and kinetics, A.C.S. Symposium Series 93, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  36. Klapow, L.A., and Lewis, R.H., 1979, Analysis of toxicity data for California marine water quality standards, Jour. Water Poll. Control Fed., 51: 2054.Google Scholar
  37. Lee, J., 1979, A scheme for the separation and characterization of possible metal-organic species in natural waters: some preliminary data, Geol. Surv. Can., Paper 79: 121.Google Scholar
  38. Lee, J., 1981, The use of reverse phase liquid chromatography for studying trace metal-organic associations in natural waters, Water Res., 15: 507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leonard, J.D., and Crewe, N., 1981, Study on the extraction of organic compounds from seawater with XAD-2 resin, in: Proceedings of a Marine Chemistry Symposium, Halifax, N.S., Canada, June, p. 2.Google Scholar
  40. Leppard, G.G., Massalski, A., and Lean, D.R.S., 1977, Electron-opaque microscopic fibrils in lakes: their demonstration, their biological derivation and their potential significance in the redistribution of cations, Protoplasma, 92: 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McKnight, D.M., and Morel, F.M.M., 1980, Copper complexation by siderophores from filamentous blue-green algae, Limnol. Oceanogr., 25: 62.Google Scholar
  42. Mantoura, R.F.C., 1979, Organometallic interactions in natural waters: a review, in: “Organic Chemistry of Sea Water”, E.K. Duursma and R. Dawson, eds., Elsevier Oceanography Series, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  43. Montgomery, J.R., and Santiago, R.J., 1978, Zinc and copper in ‘particulate’ forms and ’soluble’ complexes with inorganic and organic ligands in the Guanajíbo River and coastal zone, Puerto Rico, Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci., 6: 111.Google Scholar
  44. Ovchinnikov, Y.A., 1979, Physico-chemical basis of ion transport through biological membranes: Ionophores and ion channels, Eur. J. Biochem., 94: 321.Google Scholar
  45. Pankow, J.F., Leta, D.P., Lin, J.W., Ohl, S.E., Shum, W.P., and Janauer, G.E., 1977, Analysis for chromium traces in the aquatic ecosystem, Sci. Total Environm., 7: 17.Google Scholar
  46. Piotrowicz, S.R., Harvey, G.R., Springer-Young, M., Courant, R.A., and Boren, D.A., 1981, Studies of cadmium, copper and zinc complexation by marine fulvic and humic materials in seawater using anodic stripping voltammetry, in: “Trace Metals in Sea-water”, C.S. Wong, J.D. Burton, E.Boyle, K. Bruland, and E.D. Goldberg, eds., Plenum, N.Y.Google Scholar
  47. Raspor, B., Valenta, P., Nürnberg, H.W., and Branica, M., 1978, The chelation of cadmium with NTA in seawater as a model for the typical behaviour of trace metal chelates in natural waters, Sci. Total Environm., 9: 87.Google Scholar
  48. Selwyn, M.J., and Dawson, A.P., 1977, Model membranes and transport systems, Biochem. Soc. Trans., 5: 628.Google Scholar
  49. Sharp, J.H., 1973, Size classes of organic carbon in seawater, Limnol. Oceanogr., 17: 494.Google Scholar
  50. Shuman, M.S., and Michael, L.C., 1978, Application of the rotated disk electrode to measurement of copper complex dissociation rate constants in marine coastal samples, Environ. Sci. Technol., 12: 1069.Google Scholar
  51. Skogerboe, R.K., Wilson, S.A., and Osteryoung, J.G., 1980, Exchange of comments on scheme for classification of heavy metal species in natural waters, Anal. Chem., 52: 1960.Google Scholar
  52. Slowey, J.F., Jeffrey, L.M., and Hood, D.W., 1967, Evidence for organic complexed copper in sea water, Nature, 214: 377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smith, R.G., 1976, Evaluation of combined applications of ultrafiltration and complexation capacity techniques to natural waters, Anal. Chem., 48: 74.Google Scholar
  54. Steinberg, C., 1980, Species of dissolved metals derived from oligotrophic hard water, Water Res., 14: 1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sugimura, Y., Suzuki, Y., and Miyake, Y., 1978, Chemical forms of minor metallic elements in the ocean, J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 34: 93.Google Scholar
  56. Sylva, R.N., and Davidson, M.R., 1979, The hydrolysis of metal ions. Part I. Copper ( II ), J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans., 232.Google Scholar
  57. Van den Berg, C.M.G., Wong, P.T.S., and Chau, Y.K., 1979, Measurement of complexing materials excreted from algae and their ability to ameliorate copper toxicity, J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 36: 901.Google Scholar
  58. Wershaw, R.L., and Pickney, D.J., 1977, Chemical structure of humic acids, Part 2. The molecular aggregation of some humic acid fractions in N, N-dimethylformamide, J. Res. U.S. Geol. Surv., 5: 571.Google Scholar
  59. Whitfield, M., and Turner, D.R., 1979, Critical assessment of the relationship between biological, thermodynamic and electrochemical availability, in: “Chemical Modeling in Aqueous Systems“, E.A. Jenne, ed., ACS Symposium Series 93, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  60. Young, J., Gurtisen, J.M., Apts, C.W., and Crecelius, E.A., 1979, The relationship between the copper complexing capacity of seawater and copper toxicity in shrimp zoeae, Mar. Environ. Res., 2: 265.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. E. Batley
    • 1
  1. 1.Analytical Chemistry SectionCSIRO, Division of Energy ChemistryLucas HeightsAustralia

Personalised recommendations