Laboratory and Field Approaches to Environmental Effects Monitoring with Emphasis on Some Microbial-Heavy Metal Relations

  • Ralph F. Vaccaro
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 6)


Over the past 30 years an increasingly rigid rationale has evolved concerning what constitutes acceptable environmental impacts from the release of society’s wastes. This trend, particularly pronounced with regard to the oceans, has in turn generated an unfulfilled demand for more discerning effects monitoring to disclose prevailing levels of environmental stress. The perplexing shortfall regarding environmental effects monitoring is somewhat analogous to that of an employee paid to rid a certain section of beach of cans, bottles and other debris only to be abruptly confronted with the additional task of counting all brown sand particles.


American Petroleum Institute Secondary Culture Adenylate Energy Charge Copper Tolerance Mussel Watch 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph F. Vaccaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Woods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA

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