Experimental Myelopathy and Encephalopathy Induced by Actinomycin D

  • Wilbur F. Rowley
  • I. James Young


The antibiotic actinomycin D, together with similar actinomycin compounds, was isolated from cultures of Streptomyces and described according to chemical structure [1–6]. A highly labeled actinomycin D was recently synthesized [7]. The toxicity of the actinomycins in animals has been studied [8, 9], and their therapeutic usefulness and toxic manifestations in humans are known [10, 11].


Motor Neuron Part Versus Orotic Acid Intracerebral Injection Magnesium Pemoline 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Manaker, R.A., Gregory, F. J., Vining, L.C., and Waksman, S.A.: Actinomycin: III. The properties of a new actinomycin, Antiobiotics Annual, Medical Encyclopedia, Inc., New York, 1954–1955, pp. 853–857.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bullock, E., and Johnson, A. W.: Actinomycin: Part V. The structure of actinomycin D, Article 624, J. Chem. Soc.: 3280–3285, 1957.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Waksman, S.A., and Woodruff, H. B.: Bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal substances produced by a soil Actinomyces. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 45: 609, 1940.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brockmann, H., Bohnsack, H., Franck, B., Gróne, H., Muxfeldt, H., and Riling, C. H.: Neue farbige Produkte der Actinomycine, Angew. Chem. 68: 70, 1956.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Katz, E., and Weissbach, H.: Incorporation of C14 -labeled amino acids into actinomycin and protein by Streptomyces antibioticus, J. Biol. Chem. 238 (2): 66–675, 1963.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Katz, E.: Biogenesis of the actinomycins, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 89: 304–322, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Katz, E., Mauger, A.B., and Weissbach, H.: Biosynthesis of highly labeled actinomycins. Mol. Pharmacol. 1 (1): 107–109, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Waksman, S.A., Robinson, H., Metzger, H. J., and Woodruff, H.B.: Toxicity of actinomycin, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 47: 261–263, 1941.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Philips, F. S., Schwartz, H.S., Sternberg, S. S., and Tan, C. T. C.: The toxicity of actinomycin D, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. Part II, Pharmacological and Experimental 89: 348–360, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moore, G.E., Di Paolo, J.A., and Kondo,T.: The chemotherapeutic effects and complications of actinomycin D in patients with advanced cancer, Cancer 11: 1204–1214, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shaw, R. K., Moore, E. W., Muller, P. S., Frei, Emil, III, and Watkin, D. W.: The effect of actinomycin D on childhood neoplasms, Am. J. Diseases Children 99: 628–635, 1960.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reich, E., Franklin, R. M., Shatkin, A. J., and Tatum, E.L.: Effect of actinomycin D on cellular nucleic acid synthesis and virus production, Science 134: 556–557, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ficq, A.: Effets de l’actinomycine D et de la puromycine sur le métabolisme de l’oocyte en croissance. Etude autoradiographique, Exptl. Cell Res. 34: 581–594, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cavalieri, L. F., and Nemchin, R.G.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 87: 641, 1964.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goldberg, I. H., Rabinowitz, M., and Reich, E.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 48: 2094, 1962.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kersten, W., Kersten, H., and Szybalski, W.: Physicochemical properties of complexes between deoxyribonucleic acid and antibiotics which affect ribonucleic acid synthesis (actinomycin, daunomycin, cinerubin, nogalamycin, chromomycin, mithramycin, and olivomycin), Biochemistry 5 (1): 236–244, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hebb, D.O.: The Organization of Behavior, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1949.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Weiss, P.A.: in: Analysis of Development, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1955, p. 365.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hydén, H.: in Brachet, J., and Minsky, A. (editors): The Cell, Biochemistry, Physiology, Morphology, Vol. 4, Academic Press, New York, 1960, Chap. 5.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cameron, D.E., and Solyom, L.: Effects of ribonucleic acid on memory, Geriatrics 16: 74–81, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Plotnikoff, N.: Magnesium pemoline: Enhancement of learning and memory of a conditioned avoidance response, Science 151 (3711): 703–704, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Glasky, Alvin J.: Magnesium pemoline: Enhancement of brain RNA polymerases, Science 151 (3711): 702–703, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dingman, W., and Sporn, M. B.: The incorporation of 8-azaguanine into rat brain RNA and its effect on maze-learning by the rat: An inquiry into the biochemical basis of memory, J. Psychiat. Res. 1: 1, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Flexner, J.B., Flexner, L.B., and Stellar, E.: Memory in mice as affected by íntracerebral puromycin, Science 141:57.-59, 1963.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Agranoff, B.W., Davis, R.E., and Brink, J. J.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 54: 788, 1965.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barondes, S. H.,, and Jarvik, M.E.: The influence of actinomycin D on brain RNA synthesis and on memory, J. Neurochem. 11: 187–195, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Appel, S. H.: Effect of inhibition of RNA synthesis on neural information storage, Nature 207 (5002): 1163–1166, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barondes, S. H.: Relationship of biological regulatory mechanisms to learning and memory, Nature 205: 18–21, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Barondes, S. H., and Cohen, Harry D.: Puromycin effect on successive phases of memory storage, Science 151 (3710): 594–595, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cohen, H. D., and Barondes, S. H.: Further studies of learning and memory after intra-cerebral actinomycin D, J. Neurochem. 13: 207–211, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Flexner, L.B., and Flexner, J.B.: Effect of acetoxycycloheximide and of an acetoxycycloheximide-puromycin mixture on cerebral protein synthesis and memory in mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 55: 369–374, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barron, K. D., and Tuncbay, T. O.: Phosphatase in cuneate nuclei after brachial plexectomy, Arch. Neurol. 7: 203–210, 1962.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reynolds, R.C., Montgomery, P. O’B., and Hughes, B.: Nucleolar “caps” produced by actinomycin D, Cancer Res. 24 (7): 1269–1277, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Levy, H. B.: Effect of actinomycin D on HeLa cell nuclear RNA metabolism, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 113: 886–889, 1963.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Koenig, H.: Experimental myelopathy produced with pyrimidine analogue, A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. 2: 463–475, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kurth, L. E., Jr., Koenig, H., and Freyre, J.: Frontal lobe encephalopathy with focal seizures produced with pyrimidine analogs, Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc.: 215–216, 1960.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Greenfield, J.G.: Neuropathology, Edward Arnold, Ltd., 1961, p. 88.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilbur F. Rowley
  • I. James Young

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations