Flavor Components and Quality Attributes

  • T. E. Acree
  • M. R. Mclellan


Crisp, fragrant, and tart are words used to describe the experience of eating an apple—a very good apple indeed. A bad one, on the other hand, will invoke words like mealy, rancid, and flat. These words, and many more like them, are linguistic expressions of our reactions to the physical and chemical properties of apples. It is important to keep in mind that apples, like all plant tissue, are composed of millions of different chemical compounds. When we eat an apple, some of its chemical constituents react with receptors in the nose to cause the perception of odor; others react with receptors on the tongue to create the perception of taste; and still other chemicals form large physical structures that are detected by “touch” receptors in the mouth. As we chew an apple, some physical structures produce sounds that become another part of our perception of texture. Therefore, chemicals create the flavor, color, and texture of apples; they determine the sensory quality of apples. Quality control of apple sensory attributes requires measurement of the chemical and physical features that humans detect with their senses. For two reasons, this is no simple task.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acree, T. E., J. B. Barnard, D. G. Cunningham. 1984. A procedure for the sensory analysis of gas chromatographic effluents. Food Chem. 14: 276–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amerine, M. A., R. M. Pangborn, and E. B. Roessler. 1965. Principles of sensory evaluation. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. ASTM. American Society for Testing and Materials, 1968. Manual on sensory testing methods. ASTM STP 434. Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  4. Beebe-Center, J. G. 1932. The psychology of pleasantness and unpleasantness. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beidler, L. M. 1964. Taste receptor stimulation. Biophys. Chem. 12: 107.Google Scholar
  6. Bobrakov, B. P., V. V. Borisov, Z. A. Mamakova, V. A. Vasil’eva, S. I. Kochin, V. F. Popel’, V. P. Dubyaga, and E. E. Katalevskii. 1977. Suitability of semi-permeable membranes for concentration of grape and apple juices (in Russian). Konservn. Ovoshchesushil. Promst. 5: 30.Google Scholar
  7. Boudreau, J. C. 1986. Neurophysiology and human taste sensations. J. Sensory Stud. 1: 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourne, M. C. 1982. Food texture and viscosity: Concept and measurement. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, D. S., J. R. Buchanan, and J. R. Hicks. 1966. Volatiles from apple fruits as related to variety, maturity and ripeness. Proc. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 88: 98.Google Scholar
  10. Casimir, D. J., and F. B. Whitfield. 1978. Flavor impact values: A new concept for assigning numerical values for the potency of individual flavor components and their contribution to the overall flavor profile. In Proc. XV Symposium: Flavors of Fruits and Fruit Juices, 325. Int. Fed. Fruit Juice Processors.Google Scholar
  11. Caul, J. F. 1956. The profile method of flavor analysis. Adv. Food Res. 7: 1.Google Scholar
  12. Cunningham, D. G., T. E. Acree, and J. B. Barnard. 1986. Charm analysis of apple volatiles. Food Chem. 19: 137–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dravnieks, A., and A. O’Donnell. 1971. Principles and some techniques of high resolution headspace analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 19: 1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Drawert, F., and N. Christoph. 1984. Significance of the sniffing-technique for the determination of odour thresholds and detection of aroma impacts of trace volatiles. In Analysis of volatiles: Methods-applications, ed. P. Schreier, 269–91. Walter de Gruyter, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Dryden, E. C., and C. H. Hills. 1957. Consumer preference studies on apple sauce: Sugar-acid relations. Food Technol. 11: 589.Google Scholar
  16. Durr, P. 1979. Development of an odour profile to describe apple juice essences. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 12 (1): 23.Google Scholar
  17. Engen, T. 1982. The perception of odors. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Hammett, L. K., H. J. Kirk, H. G. Todd, and S. A. Hale. 1977. Association between soluble solids/acid content and days from full bloom of Golden Delicious apples J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 102: 429.Google Scholar
  19. Joslyn, M. A., and J. L. Goldstein. 1964. Astringency of fruits and fruit products in relation to phenolic content. Adv. Food Res. 13: 179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kawamura, Y., and M. Kare. 1986. The umami taste. Marcel Dekker, New York. LaBelle, R. L. 1978. Comparison of eleven New York State apple cultivars-1978. New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY. Mimeo.Google Scholar
  21. LaBelle, R. L., R. S. Shallenberger, R. D. Way, L. R. Mattick, and J. C. Moyer. 1960. The relationship of apple maturity to applesauce quality. Food Technol. 9: 463.Google Scholar
  22. Lea, A. G. H., and C. F. Timberlake. 1974. The phenolics of ciders. J. Sci. Food Agric. 25: 1537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lindley, M. G., and E. B. Rathbone. 1986. Method of modifying taste. Brit. Pat. GB 2,157,148 A.Google Scholar
  24. Matsuura, T., A. G. Baxter, and S. Sourirajan. 1975. Reverse osmosis recovery of flavor components from apple juice waters. J. Food Sci. 40: 1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McLellan, M. R., J. Barnard, and D. T. Queale. 1984. Sensory analysis of carbonated apple juice using response surface methodology. J. Food Sci. 49: 1595–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McLellan, M. R., and L. M. Massey, Jr. 1984. Effect of postharvest storage and ripening of apples on the sensory quality of processed apple sauce. J. Food Sci. 49: 1323–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McLellan, M. R., L. R. Lind, and R. W. Kime. 1983. Sensory descriptors for processed apple products. In Processed apples: Research report 1983, p. 12. N.Y. State Agric. Exp. Stn. Spec. Rep. 50.Google Scholar
  28. McLellan, M. R., L. R. Lind, and R. W. Kime. 1984. Determination of sensory components accounting for intervarietal variation in apple sauce and slices using factor analysis. J. Food Sci. 49: 751–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McLellan, M. R., R. D. Way, and R. C. Lamb. 1984c. An interactive computerized rank analysis method for use in cultivar selection and blend evaluation. Hortic. Sci. 49 (5): 634–35.Google Scholar
  30. McLellan, M. R., R. W. Kime, and L. R. Lind. 1985. Apple juice clarification with the use of honey and pectinase. J. Food Sci. 50: 206–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McNamara, B. P., and W. H. Danker. 1968. Odor and taste. In Basic principles of sensory evaluation, 13–23, ASTM STP 433. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  32. Mohr, W. P. 1973. Applesauce “grain.” J. Texture Stud. 4: 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moskowitz, H. R. 1975. Computer derived perceptual maps of flavors. J. Food Sci. 40: 788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moskowitz, H. R. 1983. Product testing and sensory evaluation of foods: Marketing and RD approaches. Food and Nutrition Press, Westport, CT. Flavor Components and Quality Attributes 341Google Scholar
  35. Moskowitz, H. R. 1985. New directions for product testing and sensory analysis of foods. Food and Nutrition Press, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  36. Pederson, C. S. 1947. Apple juice with original character retained. J. Fruit Prod. 26: 294.Google Scholar
  37. Pederson, C. S. 1947. How to keep fresh flavor in the apple juice. The Canner 105: 16.Google Scholar
  38. Peleg, M., and E. B. Bagley. 1983. Physical properties of foods. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  39. Pfaff, D. W. 1984. Taste olfaction and central nervous system. Rockefeller Univ. Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  40. Plane, R. A., L. R. Mattick, and L. D. Weirs. 1980. An acidity index for the taste of wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 312 (3): 265.Google Scholar
  41. Sheu, M. J., and Wiley, R. C. 1983. Preconcentration of apple juice by reverse osmosis. J. Food Sci. 48 (2): 422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smock, R. M., and A. M. Neubert. 1950. Apples and apple products. Interscience Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Sydow, E. von, H. R. Moskowitz, H. Jacobs, and H. Meiselman. 1974. Odor—taste interaction in fruit juices. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 7: 18.Google Scholar
  44. Tannous, R. I., and A. K. Lawn. 1981. Effects of freeze concentration on chemical and sensory qualities of apple juice. J. Food Sci. Technol. 18: 27.Google Scholar
  45. Tufts, W. P. 1929. Seasonal temperature and fruit ripening: A preliminary report. Proc. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 26: 163.Google Scholar
  46. Vickers, Z. M., and M. C. Bourne. 1976. A psychoacoustical theory of crispness. J. Food Sci. 41: 1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Williams, A. A., M. J. Lewis, and O. G. Tucknott. 1980. The neutral volatile components of cider apple juice. Food Chem. 6: 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Williams, A. A., S. P. Langron, and G. M. Arnold. 1983. Objective and hedonic sensory assessment of ciders and apple juices. In Sensory quality in foods and beverages: Definition, measurement and control, ed. A.A. Williams and R.K. Atkin, 310–23. Verlag Chemie Intl., Deerfield Beach, FL.Google Scholar
  49. Winkler, A. J. 1932. Maturity test for table grapes. Calif. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 529. Yahia, E. M. 1986. Changes in the flavor components in apples during maturation, ripening, and storage. Ph.D. Thesis. Cornell University, Geneva, NY.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. E. Acree
  • M. R. Mclellan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations