Structural Studies of the Cholesteric Mesophase

  • Furn F. Knapp
  • Harold J. Nicholas

Abstract

Mesomorphic substances were discovered in the latter part of the last century and Reinitzer is generally accredited with the early work on cholesteric liquid crystals (34). The cholesteric mesophase is unique in that it can scatter white light to form brilliant colors. Nearly all cholesteric substances are esters of cholesterol. These compounds have a negative optical activity with an unusually large rotation. This large rotatory power is due to the unusual arrangement of molecules and not to the asymmetry of the individual steroid molecules. The colors formed by the cholesteric mesophase are due to the scattering of white light (circular dichroism). While one circularly, polarized component of the incident beam is reflected, the other is scattered, resulting in the formation of the classical iridescent colors generally associate with this mesophase (13).

Keywords

Cholesteryl Ester Steryl Ester Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Banana Peel Acyl Chain Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Adams, J. E., Haas, W., Wysocki, J., J. Chem. Phys. 50, 2458 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams, J. E., Haas, W., Wsyocki, J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 92 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arnold, H., Remus, D.,. Sackmann, H., Z. Phys. Chem. 222, 15 (1963).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barrall, E. A. II, Sweeney, M. A., Mol Cryst. 5, 257 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barrall, E. A. II, Porter, R. S., Johnson, J. F., J. Phys. Chem. 70, 385 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barrall, E. A. II, Porter, R. S., Johnson, J. F., J. Phys. Chem. 71, 1224 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castellano, J. A., Goldmacher, J. E., Barton, L. A., Kane, J. S., J. Org. Chem. 33, 3501 (1968).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Conner, R. L., Mallory, F. B., Landrey, J. R., Iyengar, C. W. L., J. Biol. Chem. 244, 2325 (1969).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dave, J. S., Shimizu, M., J. Chem. Soc., 4617 (1954).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    de Vries, H. L., Acta Cryst. 4, 219 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Devys, M., Barbier, M., Bulletin de la Société de chemie Biologique 49, 865 (1967).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elser, W., Mol. Cryst. 2, 1 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fergason, J. L., Scien. Amer. 211, 77 (1964).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fergason, J. L., Mol. Cryst. 1, 293 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fergason, J. L., Goldberg, N. N., Nadalin, R. J., Mol. Cryst. 1, 309 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fergason, J. L., Brown, G. H., J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 45, 120 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Friedel, G., Ann. Physique 18, 273 (1922).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gray, G. W., J. Chem. Soc., 3733 (1956).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gray, G. W., “Molecular Structure and the Properties of Liquid Crystals”, Academic Press, New York, 1962.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    King, F. E., Jurd, L., J. Chem. Soc., 1192 (1953).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Knapp, F. F., Nicholas, H. J., J. Org. Chem. 33, 3995 (1968).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Knapp, F. F., Nicholas, H. J., Phytochem. 8, 207 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Knapp, F. F.’, Nicholas, H. J., J. Org. Chem., In Press.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Knapp, F. F., Nicholas, H. J., submitted to Mol. Cryst. and Liq. Cryst.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Knapp, F. F., Nicholas, H. J., “Naturally Occurring Cholesteric Liquid Crystals”, Abstract, VIth International Symposium on Natural Products ( Terpenes and Steroids Mexico City, April, 1969.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Knapp, F. F., Nicholas, H. J., Phytochem., In Press.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kast, W., Londolt-Bornstein, 6th edit., Vol. II, Part 2a, p. 266 (1959).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kuksis, A., Beveridge, J. M. R., J. Org. Chem. 25, 1209 (1959).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kuksis, A., McCarthur, M. J., Canad. J. Biochem. 40, 679 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oseen, C., Trans. Far. Soc. 29, 883 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Oxford, A. E., Biochem. J. 27, 1176 (1933).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pohlman, J. L. W., Mol. Cryst. 2, 15 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Porter, R. S., Barrall, E. M. II, Johnson, J. F., Acc. Chem. Res. 2, 53 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reinitzer, F., Monatsch Chem. 9, 421 (1888).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Riegel, B., Kay, I. R., J. A. C. S. 66, 723 (1944).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stewart, G. T., Mol. Cryst. 1, 563 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wiegand, C., Zeit. Natur. 4b, 249 (1949).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Furn F. Knapp
    • 1
    • 2
  • Harold J. Nicholas
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Medical Education and ResearchSt. Louis University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistrySt. Louis University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations