Consequences of Intravascular Infection

  • Lawrence R. Freedman
Part of the Current Topics in Infectious Disease book series (CTID)


The clinical features of intravascular infection are secondary to its biology. However, particularly in the early phase, the symptoms are nonspecific, and diagnosis will depend to a considerable degree upon the patient’s appreciation of his symptoms and the physician’s alertness to the diagnostic possibility. In addition, some important biological consequences may not contribute to clinical symptomatology.


Aortic Valve Infective Endocarditis Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation Mycotic Aneurysm Bacterial Endocarditis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Libman, E., Friedberg, C. K.: Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Oxford University Press, New York, 1941, 108 pages.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hunter, T. H.: Bacterial. endocarditis. Am. Heart J. 42 (3): 472–482, 1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Watanakunakorn, C.: Changing epidemiology and new aspects of infective endocarditis, in: Advances in Internal Medicine, Stollerman, G. H., ed. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, pp. 21–47, 1977.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weinstein, L., Rubin, R. H.: Infective Endocarditis-1973. Prog. Cardiovas. Dis. 16: 239–274, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crittin, J., Waldvogel, F. A.: Endocardites bactériennes: Aspects cliniques, bactériologiques et facteurs de pronostic. Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr. 107(21)(Suppl. 5 ): 1–26, 1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hench, W. L., Huehnergarth, R. J., Rösch, J., Melnyk, C. S.: Gallbladder and liver infarction occurring as a complication of acute bacterial endocarditis. Gastroenterology 68 (6): 1602–1607, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lingeman, C. J., Smith, E. B., Battersby, J. S., Behnke, R. H.: Subacute bacterial endocarditis-Splenectomy in cases refractory to antibiotic therapy. Arch. Intern. Med. 97: 309–314, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gallavardin, P., Coiffier, B., Tissot, E., Brun, F.: Abcès de la rate revelant une endocardite infectieuse-À propos d’un cas. Lyon Med. 242 (16): 297–300, 1979.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gonin, A., Berthou, J. D., Simonin, C., Delaye, J., Roques, J. C., Dufoix, V.: Ruptures spontanées de rate au cours de l’endocardite infectieuse-A propose de 3 nouvelles observation. Lyon Med. 229 (12): 1269–1271, 1973.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Godeau, P., Wechsler, B., Herreman, G., Balafrej, M., Bletry, O., Squalli, S.: Rupture de rate au cours des endocardites bactériennes: 2 observations. Nouv. Presse Med. 8: 2811–2814, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klein, R. S., Recco, R. A., Catalano, M. T., Edberg, S. C., Casey, J. I., Steigbigel, N. H.: Association of Streptococcus bovis with carcinoma of the colon. N. Engl. J. Med. 297 (15): 800–802, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Noble, C. J., Uttley, A. H. C., Falk, R. H., Richardson, P. J.: Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colonic cancer (letter). Lancet 1 (8067): 766, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brooks, R. J., Ravreby, W. D., Keusch, G., Bottone, E.: More on Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and bowel carcinoma (letter). N. Engl. J. Med. 298 (10): 572, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Levy, B. S., von Reyn, C. F., Arbeit, R. D., Friedland, J., Crumpacker, C.: More on Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and bowel carcinoma (letter). N. Engl. J. Med. 298 (10): 572–573, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Snyder, N., Atterbury, C. E., Correia, J. P., Conn, H. O.: Increased concurrence of cirrhosis and bacterial endocarditis-A clinical and postmortem study. Gastroenterology 73 (5): 1107–1113, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buchbinder, N. A., Roberts, W. C.: Alcoholism-An important but unemphasized factor predisposing to infective endocarditis. Arch. Intern. Med. 132: 689–692, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smith, F. E., Palmer, D. L.: Alcoholism, infection and altered host defenses: A review of clinical and experimental observations. J. Chron. Dis. 29: 35–49, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greenlee, J. E., Mandell, G. L.: Neurological manifestations of infective endocarditis: A review. Stroke 4: 958–963, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hickie, J. B.: Bacterial endocarditis in Sydney 1950–1959. Med. J. Austr. 1: 929–934, 1961.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ziment, I.: Nervous system complications in bacterial endocarditis. Am. J. Med. 47: 593–607, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jones, H. R., Jr., Siekert, R. G., Gerac Geraci, J. E.: Neurological manifestations of bacterial endocarditis. Ann. Intern. Med. 71 (1): 21–28, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pruitt, A. A., Rubin, R. H., Karchmer, A. W., Duncan, G. W.: Neurological complications of bacterial endocarditis. Medicine 57 (4): 329–343, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schnurr, L. P., Ball, A. P., Geddes, A. M., Gray, J., McGhie, D.: Bacterial endocarditis in England in the 1970’s: Review of 70 patients. Q. J. Med. N. Ser. 46 (184): 499–512, 1977.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thell, R., Martin, F. H., Edwards, J. E.: Bacterial endocarditis in subjects 60 years of age and older. Circulation 51 (1): 174–182, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tan, J. S., Watanakunakom, C., Terhune, C. A., Jr.: Streptococcus viridans endocarditis: Favorable prognosis in geriatric patients. Geriatrics 28: 68–73, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roberts W. C.: Characteristics and consequences of infective endocarditis (active or healed or both) learned from morphologic studies, in: Infective Endocarditis, Rahimtoola, S. H., ed. Grune & Stratton, New York, pp. 55–123, 1978.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pelletier, L. L., Petersdorf, R. G.: Infective endocarditis: A review of 125 cases from the University of Washington hospitals, 1963–72. Medicine 56 (4): 287–313, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Garvey, G. J., Neu, H. C.: Infective endocarditis-an evolving disease. Medicine 57 (2): 105–127, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gretillat, F., Debievre, J., Lubetzki, J.: Endocardite d’Osier révélée par un tableau de pseudo-polyarthrite rhizomélique. Nouv. Presse. Med. 5 (24): 1534, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Churchill, M. A., Jr., Geraci, J. E., Hunder, G. G.: Musculoskeletal manifestations of bacterial endocarditis. Ann. Intern. Med. 87: 754–759, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bayer, A. S., Brenner, R. J., Galpin, J. E., Guze, L. B.: Severe disabling polyarthritis associated with bacterial endocarditis. West. J. Med. 123 (5): 404–406, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Meyers, O. L., Commerford, P. J.: Muscoloskeletal manifestations of bacterial endocarditis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 36: 517–519, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Holler, J. W., Pecora, J. S.: Backache in bacterial endocarditis. N. Y. State J. Med. 3: 1903–1905, 1970.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lawrence, E. C., Mills, J.: Bacterial endocarditis mimicking vasculitis with steroid-induced remission. West. J. Med. 124 (4): 333–334, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Geraci, J. E., Griepp, P. R., Wilkowske, C. J., Wilson, W. R., Washington, J. A., II: Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis—Four cases with clinical and laboratory observations. Mayo Clin. Proc. 53: 49–53, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dzindzio, B. S., Meyer, L. R., Osterholm, R., Hopeman, A., Woltjen, J., Forker, A. D.: Isolated gonococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis: Diagnosis by echocardiography. Circulation 59 (6): 1319–1324, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Leonard A., Raij, L., Shapiro, F. L.: Bacterial endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients. Kidney Int. 4: 407–422, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Storck, D., Jeanmaire, H., Geitner, S., Kuntz, J. L., Hermann, P.: Endocardites bactériennes revelées par des manifestations rhumatismales. J. Med. Strasbourg 8: 537–540, 1977.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Choubrac, P., Mathé, G., Haas, C., Crickx, B., Robin, P.-M., Dyan, A., Dubois, G.: Spondylodiscites révélatrices d’endocardites bactériennes. Ann. Med. Interne 127 (2): 117–121, 1976.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Acar, J.-F., Durin, R., Deloux, G., Barthalo, M., Guibert, J.: A propos de deux cas de spondylodiscites révélatrices d’une endocardite a Streptocoque viridans. Gas. Med. Fr. 81: 2351–2356, 1974.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Good, A. E., Hague, J. M., Kauffman, C. A.: Streptococcal endocarditis initially seen as septic arthritis. Arch. Intern. Med. 138: 805–806, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Powell, E. B.: Non-suppurative lesions in staphylococcal septicaemia. Pathol. Bacteriol. 82: 141–149, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McKeel, D.: Pemphigus vulgaris, large dose glucocorticoid therapy and staphylococcal bacteremia. Am. J. Med. 63: 152–160, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Murray, H. W., Tuazon, C. U., Sheagren, J. N.: Staphylococcal septecemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Arch. Intern. Med. 137: 844–847, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Castleman, B., ed. Case 26–1971: Rapidly fatal sepsis with consumption coagulopathy in heroin addict. N. Engl. J. Med. 285(1):40–48, 1971.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Beylot, C., Castaing, R., Poisot, D., Bioulac, P., Cazaugade, M.: “Acral cyanosis”: Manifestation d’une coagulation intravasculaire disséminée au cours d’une endocardite bactérienne aiguë. Ann. Dermatol. Syphiligr. 101 (4): 375–382, 1974.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wardle, E. N., Floyd, M.: Fibrinogen catabolism study of three patients with bacterial endocarditis and renal disease. Br. Med. J. 3: 255–257, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stimmel, B., Dack, S.: Infective endocarditis, in narcotic addicts, in: Infective Endocarditis, Rahimtoola, S. H., ed. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp. 195–209, 1978.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Glumeck, N., Dereume, J. P., Hubrechts, J. M., Parmentier, R., Sternon, J.: Bacterial endocarditis, intravascular coagulation and aortic bifurcation embolism. Acta Clin. Belg. 31 (5): 292–294, 1976.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Doughten, R. M., Pearson, H. A.: Disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with Aspergillus endocarditis. J. Pediatr. 73: 576–582, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Robboy, S. J., Salisbury, K., Ragsdale, B., Bobroff, L. M., Jacobson, P. M., Colman, R. W.: Mechanism of Aspergillus induced microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Arch. Intern. Med. 128: 790–793, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bayer, A. S., Theofilopoulos, A. N., Eisenberg, R., Friedman, S. G., Guze, L. B.: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpuralike syndrome associated with infective endocarditis-A possible immune complex disorder. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 238 (5): 408–410, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bailey, I. K., Richards, J. G.: Infective endocarditis in a Sydney teaching hospital-1962–1971. Aust. N. Z. J. Med. 5: 413–420, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Beeson, P. B., Brannon, E. S., Warren, J. V.: Observations on the sites of removal of bacteria from the blood in patients with bacterial endocarditis. J. Exp. Med. 81: 9–23, 1945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Werner, A. S., Cobbs, C. G., Kaye, D., Hook, E. W.: Studies on the bacteremia of bacterial endocarditis. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 202 (3): 199–203, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hook, E. W.: Annotation. Yale J. Biol. Med. 38: 521–526, 1966.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bennett, I. L., Jr., Beeson, P. B.: Bacteremia: A consideration of some experimental and clinical aspects. Yale J. Biol. Med. 26: 241–262, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kaye, D.: Infecting microorganisms, in: Infective Endocarditis, Kaye, D., ed. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 43–54, 1976.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    O’Keefe, J. P., Gorbach, S. L.: Laboratory diagnosis of infective endocarditis, in: Infective Endocarditis, Rahimtoola, S. H., ed. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp. 307–325, 1978.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kerr, A.: Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1955.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Thong, L., Daha, M. R., Eulderink, F., Kooy-Bauer, W. C., Thompson, J.: Experimental Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis: Immune complexes and renal involvement. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 40: 469–477, 1980.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Freedman, L. R., Arnold, S., Valone, J.: Experimental endocarditis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 236: 456–465, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Freedman, L. R., Valone, J.: Experimental endocarditis. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 22: 169–180, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Durack, D. T., Beeson, P. B., Petersdorf, R. G.: Experimental bacterial endocarditis. III. Production and progress of the disease in rabbits. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 54: 142–151, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Carrizosa, J., Tanphaichitra, D., Levison, M. E.: Experimental Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis in rabbits. Infect. Immun. 15 (3): 871–873, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Liekweg, W. G., Jr., Levinson, S. A., and Greenfield, L. J.: Infections of vascular grafts: Incidence, anatomic location, etiologic agents, morbidity, and mortality, in: Infections of Prosthetic Heart Valves and Vascular Grafts, Duma, R. J., ed. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 239–251, 1977.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Francioli, P., Freedman, L. R.: Streptococcal infection of endocardial and other intravascular vegetations in rabbits: Natural history and effect of dexamethasone. Infect. Immun. 24: 483–491, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cannady, P. B., Sanford, J. P.: Negative blood cultures in infective endocarditis: A review. South. Med. J. 69 (11): 1420–1424, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Editorial: Culture-negative endocarditis. Lancet 2: 1164–1165, 1977.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hampton, J. R., Harrison, M. J. G.: Sterile blood cultures in bacterial endocarditis. Q. J. Med. 36 (142): 167–174, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gleckman, R.: Culture negative bacterial endocarditis confirming the diagnosis. Am. Heart J. 94 (1): 125–126, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Petit, J.-C., Sicard, D.: Endocardite à streptocoque deficient cultivant en satellitisme. Med. Mal. Infect. 7 (11): 506–508, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Carey, R. B.: Culture-negative endocarditis. Lancet 1: 278, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sonnenwirth, A. C. (ed.): Bacteremia: Laboratory and Clinical Aspects. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1973.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Washington, J. A., II: Blood culture techniques: Techniques in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, in: Infective Endocarditis, Kaplan, E. L., Taranta, A. V., eds. American Heart Association Monograph No. 52, Dallas, pp. 44–45, 1977.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Piepkorn, M. W., Reichenbach, D. D.: Infective endocarditis associated with cell wall-deficient bacteria. Human Pathol. 9 (2): 163–173, 1978.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Freedman, L. R., Johnson, M. L.: Experimental endocarditis. IV. Tricuspid and aortic valve infection with Candida albicans in rabbits. Yale J. Biol. Med. 45: 163–175, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sande, M. A., Bowman, C. R., Calderon, R. A.: Experimental Candida albicans endocarditis: Characterization of the disease and response to therapy. Infect. Immun. 17 (1): 140–147, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Carrizosa, J., Kohn, C., Levison, M. E.: Experimental Aspergillus endocarditis in rabbits. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 86 (5): 740–753, 1975.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    McLeod, R., Remington, J. S.: Fungal endocarditis, in: Infective Endocarditis, Rahimtoola, S. H., ed. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp. 211–290, 1978.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Garrison, P., Freedman, L. R.: Experimental endocarditis. I. Staphylococcal endocarditis in rabbits resulting from placement of a polythelene catheter in the right side of the heart. Yale J. Biol. Med. 42: 394–410, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Durack, D. T.: Experimental bacterial endocarditis. IV. Structure and evolution of very early lesions. J. Pathol. 115: 81–89, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Southwick, F. S., Durack, D. T.: Chemotherapy of experimental streptococcal endocarditis. III. Failure of a bacteriostatic agent (tetracycline) in prophylaxis. J. Clin. Patho. 27: 261–264, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Teich, E. M.: Afebrile bacterial endocarditis. J. Mount Sinai Hosp. 35: 566–577, 1968.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kerr, A.: Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1955.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Villareal, H., Sokoloff, L.: The occurrence of renal insufficiency in subacute bacterial endocarditis. Am. J. Med. Sci. 220: 655–661, 1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Montgomerie, J. Z., Kalmanson, G. M., Guze, L. B.: Renal failure and infection. Medicine 47 (1): 1–32, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Goodman, J. S., Crews, H. D., Ginn, H. E., Koenig, M. G.: Bacterial endocarditis as a possible complication of chronic hemodialysis. N. Engl. J. Med. 280 (16): 876–877, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Boulton-Jones, J. M., Sissons, J. G. P., Evans, D. J., Peters, D. K.: Renal lesions of subacute infective endocarditis. Br. Med. J. 2: 11–14, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Freeman, B. C., Kreps, E. M., Ronsheim, N. J., Lejano, R. F., Sommers, S. C.: Post-staphylococcal glomerulonephritis in heroin addicts. N. Y. State J. Med. 74 (12): 2241–2243, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Levy, R. L., Hong, R.: The immune nature of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) nephritis. Am. J. Med. 54: 645–652, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Perez, G. O., Rothfield, N., Williams, R. C. Jr.: Immune-complex nephritis in bacterial endocarditis. Arch. Intern. Med. 136: 334–336, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Keslin, M. H., Messner, R. P., Williams, R. C., Jr.: Glomerulonephritis with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Arch. Intern. Med. 132: 578–581, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Perlman, B. B., Freedman, L. R.: Experimental endocarditis. III. Natural history of catheter induced endocarditis after catheter removal. Yale J. Biol. Med. 44: 214–223, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Landewehr, D. M., Evans, P. S., Fischer, L. M., Ruddy, S.: Removal of immune complexes by plasmapheresis in glomerulonephritis with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Clin. Res. 25: 507A, 1977.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Joyce, R. A., Sande, M. A.: Mechanism of anaemia in experimental bacterial endocarditis. Scand. J. Haematol. 15: 306–311, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yoshikawa, T., Tanaka, K. R., Guze, L. B.: Infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Medicine 50 (4): 237–258, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zimmerman, T. S., Fierer, J., Rothenberger, H.: Blood coagulation and the inflammatory response. Semin. Hematol. 14: 391–408, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lipinski, B., Cybulska, J., Worowski, K., Jeljaszewicz, J.: Blood clotting and fibrinolysis in experimental staphylococcal infection. Pathol. Microbiol. 34: 295–304, 1969.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    O’Connor, D. T., Weisman, M. H., Fierer, J.: Activation of the alternate complement pathway in Staph. aureus infective endocarditis and its relationship to thrombocytopenia, coagulation abnormalities and acute glomerulonephritis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 34: 179–187, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Carrizosa, J., Kaye, D.: Development of the vegetation in experimental streptococcal endocarditis. Clin. Res. 25: 373A, 1977.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Levison, M. E., Carrizosa, J., Tanphaichitra, D., Schick, P. K., Rubin, W.: Effect of aspirin on thrombogenesis and on production of experimental aortic valvular Streptococcus viridans endocarditis in rabbits. Blood 49 (4): 645–650, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Thompson, J., Eulderink, F., Lemkes, H., van Furth, R.: Effect of warfarin on the induction and course of experimental endocarditis. Infect. Immun. 14 (6): 1284–1289, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Durack, D. T., Beeson, P. B.: Pathogenesis of infective endocarditis, in: Infective Endocarditis, Rahimtoola, S. H., ed. Grane and Stratton, New York, pp. 1–53, 1978.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Parker, B. M., Andrésen, D. C., Thomas, W. A., Smith, J. R.: Effect of intravenous fibrinolytic enzymes on the vegetation of experimental bacterial endocarditis. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 52: 588–595, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Petch, C. P.: Anticoagulants in bacterial endocarditis (letter). Br. Med. J. 3: 502, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hook, E. W. III, Sande, M. A.: Role of the vegetation in experimental Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. Infect. Immun. 10 (6): 1433–1438, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Miles, A. A., Miles, E. M., Burke, J.: The value and duration of defence reactions of the skin to the primary lodgement of bacteria. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 38: 79–96, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Guckian, J. C.: Coagulopathy in experimental sepsis with Streptococcus pneumoniae in rabbits: Effect of drug therapy and splenectomy. J. Infect. Dis. 134 (2): 150–157, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Corrigan, J. J., Kiernat, J. F.: Effect of heparin in experimental gram-negative septicemia. J. Infect. Dis. 131 (2): 138–143, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Horwitz, D. L., Ballantine, T. V. N., Coran, A. G., Herman, C. M.: Heparin treatment of live Escherichia coli bacteremia in rats. J. Surg. Res. 13 (3): 120–125, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wilson, W. R., Geraci, J. E., Danielson, G. K., Thompson, R. L., Spittell, J. A., Jr., Washington, J. A., II, Giuliani, E. R.: Anticoagulant therapy and central nervous system complications in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Circulation 57: 1004–1007, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nagel, J. G., Tuazon, C. U., Cardella, T. A., Sheagren, J.N.: Teichoic acid serologic diagnosis of staphylococcal endocarditis—Use of gel diffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoretic methods. Ann. Intern. Med. 82 (1): 13–17, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Iannini, P. B., Everett, E. D., Pappas, G., LaForce, F. M.: Candida precipitins as a diagnostic aid in Candida endocarditis. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 236 (22): 2518–2520, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Bacon, P.A., Davidson, C., Smith, B.: Antibodies to Candida and autoantibodies in subacute bacterial endocarditis. Q. J. Med. N. Ser. 43 (172): 537–550, 1974.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Shanson, D. C., Hince, C.: An immunofluorescent method for detecting antibodies against viridans streptococci in Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. J. Clin. Pathol. 31 (3): 292–293, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Das, S. K., Cassidy, J. T.: Importance of heart antibody in infective endocarditis. Arch. Intern. Med. 137: 591–593, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Dhalla, N. S., Ziegelhoffer, A., Singal, P. K., Panagia, V., Dhillon, K. S.: Subcellular changes during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure due to bacterial endocarditis. Basic Res. Cardiol. 75: 81–91, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Tomlinson, C. W., Dhalla, N.S.: Myocardial cell damage during experimental infective endocarditis. Lab. Invest. 33 (3): 316–323, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Swift, H. F.: The heart in infection. Am. Heart J. 3 (6): 629–648, 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wadsworth, A. B.: A study of the endocardial lesions developing during Pneumococcus infection in horses. J. Med. Res. 39: 279–291, 1919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wright, H. D.: The production of experimental endocarditis with pneumococci and streptococci in immunised animals. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 29: 5–11, 1926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bayer, A. S., Theofilopoulos, A. N., Eisenberg, R., Dixon, F. J., Guze, L. B.: Circulating immune complexes in infective endocarditis. N. Engl. J. Med. 295: 1500–1505, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Bayer, A. S., Theofilopoulos, A. N., Dixon, F. J., Guze, L. B.: Circulating immune complexes in experimental Streptoccus viridans endocarditis: A monitor of therapeutic efficacy. J. Infect. Dis. 139: 1–8, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mohammed, I., Ansell, B. M., Holborow, E. J., Bryceson, A. D. M.: Circulating immune complexes in subacute infective endocarditis and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. J. Clin. Pathol. 30: 308–311, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Reed, P., Williams, R. C., Jr.: Immune complexes in infectious diseases, in: Advances in Internal Medicine, Stollerman, G. H., ed. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, Vol. 22, pp. 49–72, 1977.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Nomeir, A. M. Watts, E., Philp, J. R.: Bacterial endocarditis: Echocardiographic and clinical evaluation during therapy. J. Clin. Ultrasound 4 (1): 23–37, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Zubler, R. H., Lambert, O. H.: Immune complexes in clinical investigation, in: Recent Advances in Clinical Immunology, I, Thompson, R. A., ed. Churchill, Livingston, Edinburgh, London, and New York, Chapt. 6, pp. 125–147, 1977.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hurwitz, D., Quismorio, F. P., Friou, G. J.: Cyroglobulinaemia in patients with infectious endocarditis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 19: 131–141, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Woodroffe, A. J., Border, W. A., Theofilopoulos, A. N., Götze, O., Glassock, R. J., Dixon, F. J., Wilson, C. B.: Detection of circulating immune complexes in patients with glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int. 12: 268–278, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tung, K. S. K., Kim, B., Bjorvatn, B., Kronvall, G., McLaren, L. C., Williams, R. C. Jr.: Discrepancy between Clq deviation and Raji cell tests in detection of circulating immune complexes in patients with leprosy. J. Infect. Dis. 136 (2): 216–221, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Shapiro, R. F., Gamble, C. N., Wiesner, K. B., Castles, J. J., Wolf, A. W., Hurley, E. J., Salel, A. F.: Immunopathogenesis of Libman–Sacks endocarditis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 36: 508–516, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Allen, J. E., McIntosh, R. M.: Experimental streptococcal endocarditis—Immunological aspects. Clin. Res. 26: 389A, 1978.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Arnold, S. B., Valone, J. A., Askenase, P. W., Kashgarian, M., Freedman, L. R.: Diffuse glomerulonephritis in rabbits with Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. Lab. Invest. 32 (6): 681–689, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kaufman, D. B., McIntosh, R.: The pathogenesis of the renal lesion in a patient with streptococcal disease infected ventriculoatrial shunt cryoglobulinemia and nephritis. Am. J. Med. 50: 262–268, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hardin, J. A., McCluskey, R. T.: Mixed cryoglobulinemia with impaired renal function. N. Engl. J. Med. 292 (24): 1285–1290, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Strife, C. F., McDonald, B. M., Ruley, E. J., McAdams, A. J., West, C. D.: Shunt nephritis: The nature of the serum cryoglobulins and their relation to the complement profile. J. Pediatr. 88 (3): 403–413, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Carson, D. A., Bayer, A. S., Eisenberg, R. A., Lawrence, S., Theofilopoulos, A.: IgG rheumatoid factor in subacute bacterial endocarditis: Relationship to IgM rheumatoid factor and circulating immune complexes. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 31: 100–103, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Messner, R. P., Laxdal, T., Quie, P. G., Williams, R. C. Jr.: Serum opsonin, bacteria, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte interactions in subacute bacterial endocarditis. J. Clin. Invest. 47: 1109–1120, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Marnikov, M., Loshuma, A., Marson, P. L., Heremans, J. I.: Prevention by rheumatoid-factor of glomerulonephritis caused in rats by soluble Ag-Ab complexes (abstract). Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 4 (5): 326, 1974.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sheagren, J. N., Tuazon, C. U., Griffin, C., Padmore, N.: Rheumatoid factor in acute bacterial endocarditis. Arthritis Rheum. 19 (5): 887–890, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Myers, A. R., Schumacher, H. R.: Arthritis of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE). Arthritis Rheum. 19 (4): 813–814, 1976.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Leonhardt, E. T. G., Kullenberg, K. P. G.: Bilateral atrial myxomas with multiple arterial aneurysm: A syndrome mimicking polyarteritis nodosa. Am. J. Med. 62: 792–794, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Gilroy, J., Andaya, L., Thomas, V. J.: Intracranial mycotic aneurysms and subacute bacterial endocarditis in heroin addiction. Neurology 23 (11): 1193–1198, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Kilpatrick, Z. M., Greenberg, P. A., Sanford, J. P.: Splinter hemorrhages-Their clinical significance. Arch. Intern. Med. 115: 730–735, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Rubenfeld, S., Min, K. W.: Leukocytoclastic angiitis in subacute bacterial endocarditis. Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1073–1074, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Alpert, J. S., Krous, H. F., Dalen, J. E., O’Rourke, R. A., Bloor, C. M.: Pathogenesis of Osler’s nodes. Ann. Intern. Med. 85: 471–473, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Farrior, J. B., Silverman, M. E.: A consideration of the differences between a Janeway’s lesion and an Osler’s node in infectious endocarditis. Chest 70 (2): 239–243, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lowenstein, M. B., Urman, J. D., Abeles, M., Weinstein, A.: Skin inununofluorescence in infective endocarditis. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 238 (11): 1163–1165, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Schoenbaum, S. C., Gardner, P., Shillito, J.: Infections of cerebrospinal fluid shunts: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and therapy. J. Infect. Dis. 131 (5): 543–552, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Morel-Maroger, L., Sraer, J. D., Heffernan, G., Godeau, P.: Kidney in subacute endocarditis. Arch. Pathol. 94: 205–213, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Dodge, W. R., Spargo, B. H., Travis, L.B.: Occurrence of acute glomerulonephritis in sibling contacts of children with sporadic acute glomerulonephritis. Pediatrics 40: 1029–1030, 1967.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Labrune, B., Levy, M., Bauby, C., Gubler, M. C., Mailer, R.: Les glomerulonephrites secondaires aux dérivations ventriculoatriales (“shunt nephritis”). Arch. Fr. Pediatr. 30: 793–808, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Bolton, W. K., Sande, M. A., Normansell, D. E., Sturgill, B. C., Westervelt, F. B.: Ventriculojugular shunt nephritis with Corynebacterium bovis. Am. J. Med. 59: 417–423, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Spitzer, R. E., Stitzel, A. E., Urmson, J. R.: Is glomerulonephritis after bacterial sepsis always benign? (letter). Lancet 1: 871, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Uff, J. S., Evans, D. J.: 11. Glomerular disease in infective endocarditis, in: Proceedings of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. J. Med. Microbiol. 10:91, 1977.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Baglin, A., Normand, J. P., Tancrède, C., Callard, P., Brunet, A., Fritel, D.: Anurie prolongée au cours d’une endocardite bactérienne. Ann. Med. Interne 126 (4): 241–250, 1975.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Freedman, L. R.: Interstitial renal inflammation, including pyelonephritis and urinary tract infection, in: Stauss and Welt’s Diseases of the Kidney, 3rd ed., Early, L. E., Gottschalk, C. W., eds. Little, Brown, Boston, pp. 817–876, 1979.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Pertschuk, L. P., Vuletin, J. C., Sutton, A. L., Velazquez, L. A.: Demonstration of antigen and immune complex in glomerulonephritis due to Staphylococcus aureus. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 66 (6): 1027, 1976.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Hall, G. H., Hart, R. J. C., Davis, S. W., George, M., Head, A. C.: Glomerulonephritis associated with Coxiella burnetii endocarditis (letter). Br. Med. J. 2: 275, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Rosman, M. S., Lubbe, W. F., Hayden, M., Basson, N., Uys, C. J.: Q fever endocarditis: A report of 2 cases. S. Afr. Med. J. 53: 296–300, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Beeler, B. A., Growder, J. G., Smith, J. W., White, A.: Propionibacterium acnes: Pathogen in central nervous system shunt infection-Report of 3 cases including immune complex glomerulonephritis. Am. J. Med. 61: 935–938, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Moss, S. W., Gary, N. E., Eisinger, R. P.: Nephritis associated with a diptheroid-infected cerebrospinal fluid shunt. Am. J. Med. 63: 318–319, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Sheagren, J. N., Tuazon, C. V., Quie, P. G.: Alternate complement pathway activation by strains of S. aureus isolated from patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Clin. Res. 26: 526A, 1978.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Spitzer, R. E., Stitzel, A. E., Urmson, J. R.: Evidence that immune complex glomerulo-nephritis associated with indolent bacterial sepsis may lead to progressive renal disease. Pediatr. Res. 12: 548, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Chan, Y. L., Long, B., To, B. L., Kwitko, A., Seymour, A. E., Thompson, A., Taylor, H., Clarkson, A. R.: Plasmapheresis in the management of glomerulonephritis. Aust. N. Z. Med. J. 7: 225, 1977.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    D’Apice, A. J. F.: Plasmapheresis in the treatment of glomerulonephritis. Aust. N. Z. J. Med. 7: 441, 1977.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Rossen, R. D., Hersh, E. M., Sharp, J. T., McCredie, K. B., Gyorkey, F., Suki, W. N., Eknoyan, G., Reisberg, M. A.: Effect of plasma exchange on circulating immune complexes and antibody formation in patients treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisone. Am. J. Med. 63: 674–682, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Becker, G. J., d’Apice, A. J. F., Walker, R. G., Kincaid-Smith, P.: Plasmapheresis in the treatment of glomerulonephritis. Med. J. Aust. 2: 693–696, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Beaufils, M., Morel-Maroger, L., Sraer, J. D., Kanfer, A., Kourilsky, O., Richet, G.: Acute renal failure of glomerular origin during visceral suppurations. N. Engl. J. Med. 295: 185–189, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Chesney, R. W., O’Regan, S., Drummond, K. N.: Candida endocrinopathy syndrome with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis—Demonstration of glomerular candida antigen. Clin. Nephrol. 5 (5): 232–238, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Forrest, J. W., Jr., John, F., Mills, L. R., Buxton, T. B., Moore, W. L., Jr., Hudson, J. B. H., Ozawa, T.: Immune complex glomerulonephritis associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Clin. Nephrol. 7 (2): 76–80, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Cohen, L., Freedman, L. R.: Damage to the aortic valve as a cause of death in bacterial endocarditis. Ann. Intern. Med. 55: 562–564, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Sethia, B., Williams, B. T.: Tricuspid valve excision without replacement in a case of endocarditis secondary to drug abuse. Br. Heart J. 40 (5): 579–580, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Simberkoff, M. S., Isom, W., Smithivas, T., Noriega, E. R., Raha, J. J.: Two-stage tricuspid valve replacement for mixed bacterial endocarditis. Arch. Intern. Med. 133: 212–216, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Wright, J. S., Glennie, J. S.: Excision of tricuspid valve with later replacement in endocarditis of drug addiction. Thorax 33 (4): 518–519, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Ameborn, P., Björk, V. O., Rodriguez, L., Svanbom, M.: Two-stage replacement of tricuspid valve in active endocarditis. Br. Heart J. 39 (11): 1276–1278, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Weinstein, L., Schlesinger, J. J.: Pathoanatomic, pathophysiologic and clinical correlations in endocarditis. N. Engl. J. Med. 291:832-837, 1122–1126, 1974.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Bastin, R., Vilde, J. L., Frottier, J., Lejeune, A.: La chirurgie cardiaque dans les endocardites à la période infectiuse. Coeur—No. spécial: Journées internationales de cardiologie consacrées aux remplacements valvulaires, Oct. 1974, Deauville.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Stinson, E. B., Griepp, R. B., Vosti, K., Copeland, J. G., Shumway, N. E.: Operative treatment of active endocarditis. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 71 (5): 659–665, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Boyd, A. D., Spencer, F. C., Isom, O. W., Cunningham, J. N., Reed, G. E., Acinapura, A. J., Tice, D. A.: Infective endocarditis—An analysis of 54 surgically treated patients. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 73 (1): 23–30, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Gonin, A., Cressens, J. P., Beaune, J., Delaye, J.: Aspects actuels de l’endocardite bactérienne—L’évolution vers l’insuffisance cardiaque précoce. Lyon Med. 237 (11): 875–883, 1977.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Amouroux, C., Willems, P., Clerget-Gurnaud, J. M., Ducret, J., Leoni, F., Mikaeloff, P. H.: Circulation extra-rénale pour insuffisance aortique par endocardite infectieuse. Lyon Med. 239 (4): 195–198, 1978.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Mann, T., McLaurin, L., Grossman, W., Craige, E.: Assessing the hemodynamic severity of acute aortic regurgitation due to infective endocarditis. N. Engl. J. Med. 293 (3): 108–113, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Dorschner, F., Steinbrunn, W., Turina, J., Krayenbühl, H. P.: Schwierigkeit der Diagnosestellung und Beurteilung des Schweregrades der akuten Aorteninsuffizienz bei bakterieller Endokarditis. Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr. 106: 1816–1819, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Falicov, R. E., Behara, S., Oyama, J. H.: Diastolic murmur in uremia (letter). N. Engl. J. Med. 300 (23): 1333, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Arnett, E. M., Roberts, W. C.: Valve ring abscess in active infective endocarditis—Frequency, location and clues to clinical diagnosis from the study of 95 necropsy patients. Circulation 54 (1): 140–145, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Arnett, E. N., Roberts, W. C.: Clinicopathology of prosthetic valve endocarditis, in: Infection of Prosthetic Heart Valves and Vascular Grafts. Duma, R. J., ed. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 17–41, 1977.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Sheldon, W. H., Golden, A.: Abscesses of the valve rings of the heart, a frequent but not well recognized complication of acute bacterial endocarditis. Circulation 4: 1–12, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Théry, C., Folliot, J. P., Gosselin, B., Lekieffre, J., Warembourg, H.: Les blocs auriculo-ventriculaires des endocardites bactériennes. Arch. Mal. Coeur 70 (1): 15–23, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Fenichel, N. M., Jiminez, F. A., Polachek, A. A.: 2:1 Left bundle branch block in acute bacterial endocarditis with septal abscess. J. Electrocardiol. 10 (3): 287–290, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Chestier, Y., Duval, A., Luxereau, P., Chabrol, C., Acar, J.: Les conununications interventriculaires acquises au cours des endocardites bactériennes. Arch. Mal. Coeur 71 (1): 23–32, 1977.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    De Cock, K. M., Rees, J. R.: Staphylococcal aortic valve endocarditis with aortic root to right atrial fistula. Postgrad. Med. J. 54: 413, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Jouven, J. C., Rapuzzi, A., Escogido, H., Baille, Y., Malmejac, C., Houel, J.: Communications interventriculaires par perforations septales au cours del endocardites évolutives. Ann. Chir. Thorac. Cardio-vasc. 16 (3): 227–233, 1977.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Godeau, P., Herreman, G., Dechy, H., Bletry, O., Cahen, C., Guiraudon, G., Gailly, J., Veyssier, J.: Perforations auriculo-ventriculaires au cours d’une endocardite bactérienne: Guérison chirirgicale. Sem. Hop. Paris 53 (10): 621–626, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Roberts, W. C., Buchbinder, N.A.: Healed left-sided infective endocarditis: A clinicopathologic study of 59 patients. Am. J. Cardiol. 40 (6): 876–888, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Dryer, R., Goldman, D., Nelson, R.: Septic thrombophlebitis of the coronary sinus in acute bacterial endocarditis. Lancet 2: 369, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Wennevold, A., Rygg, I. H., Jacobsen, J.R.: Acute aortic regurgitation and abscess of sinus of Valsalva due to fulminating ulcerative endocarditis—Report of three fatal cases in children. Scand. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 10: 7–10, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Mildvan, D., Goldberg, E., Berger, M., Altchek, M. R., Lubkan, S. B.: Diagnosis and successful management of septal myocardial abscess: A complication of bacterial endocarditis. Am. J. Med. Sci. 274 (3): 311–316, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Klacsmann, P. G., Bulkley, B. H., Hutchins, G. M.: The changed spectrum of purulent pericarditis—An 86 year autopsy experience in 200 patients. Am. J. Med. 63: 666–673, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Prasquier, R., Gibert, C., Witchitz, S., Valere, P., Beaufils, P., Vachon, F.: Acute mitral valve obstruction during infective endocarditis. Br. Med. J. 50: 9–11, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Copeland, J. G., Salomon, N. W., Stinson, E. B., Popp, R. L., Shumway, N. E.: Acute mitral valvular obstruction from infective endocarditis. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 78 (1): 128–130, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Pease, H. F., Matsumoto, S., Cacchione, R. J., Richards, K. L., Leach, J. K.: Lethal obstruction by aortic valve vegetation. Chest 73 (5): 658–660, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Greenberg, B.H., Hoffman, O., Schiller, N. B., Miller, M., Chatterjee, K.: Sudden death in infective endocarditis (letter). Chest 71: 794–795, 1977.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    McCue, J. D., Dreher, R. J.: Bilateral endophthalmitis with Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. J. Maine Med. Assoc. 70: 463–465, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Barnett, H. J. M., Boughner, D. R., Taylor, D. W., Cooper, P. E., Kostuk, W. J., Nichol, P. M.: Further evidence relating mitral-valve prolapse to cerebral ischemic events. N. Engl. J. Med. 302: 139–144, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Molinari, G. F.: Experimental cerebral infection. I. Selective segmental occlusion of intra-cranial arteries in the Doc; H. Clinicopathological model of deep cerebral infarction. Stroke 1: 224–232, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Caywood, D. D., Wilson, J. W., O’Leary, T. P.: Septic polyarthritis associated with bacterial endocarditis in two dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 171 (6): 549–552, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Thadepalli, H., Francis, C. K.: Diagnostic clues in metastatic lesions of endocarditis in addicts. West. J. Med. 128: 1–5, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Nastro, L. J., Finegold, S. M.: Endocarditis due to anaerobic gram-negative bacilli. Am. J. Med. 54: 482–496, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Feiner, J. M., Dowell, V. R., Jr.: Anaerobic bacterial endocarditis. N. Engl. J. Med. 283 (22): 1188–1192, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Pfeifer, J. F., Lipton, M. J., Oury, J. H., Angell, W. W., Hultgren, H. N.: Acute coronary embolism complicating bacterial endocarditis: Operative treatment. Am. J. Cardiol. 37: 920–922, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Kim, H. S., Weibaecker, D. G., Lie, J. T.: Myocardial abscesses without and with coexisting infectious endocarditis. Circulation 55: 11–21, 1976.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Lerner, P. I., Weinstein, L.: Infective endocarditis in the antibiotic era. N. Engl. J. Med. 274:199–206, 259–266,323–331, 388–393, 1966.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Kaye, D.: Cure rates and long-term prognosis, in: Infective Endocarditis, Kaye, D., ed. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 201–211, 1976.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Mills, J., Drew, D.: Serratia marcescens endocarditis: A regional illness associated with intravenous drug abuse. Ann. Intern. Med. 84 (1): 29–35, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Riad El-Khatib, M., Wilson, F. M., Lemer, A. M.: Characteristics of bacterial endocarditis in heroin addicts in Detroit. Am. J. Med. Sci. 271 (2): 197–201, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Sklaver, A. R., Hoffman, T. A., Greenman, R. L.: Staphylococcal endocarditis in addicts. South. Med. J. 71 (6), 638–643, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Relson, S. R., White, P. D.: Notes on 250 cases of subacute bacterial (streptococcal) endocarditis studied and treated between 1927 and 1939. Ann. Intern. Med. 22: 40–60, 1945.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Baglin, J. Y., Poinseau, J., Dechy, H., Dorra, M., Poisson, M.: Movements choréiques révélateurs d’endocardites bactériennes à streptocoques. Nouv. Presse Med. 9: 1383–1384, 1980.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Govindan, S., Itani, A. L., Garcia, J. H.: Inflammation of the temporal artery associated with subacute bacterial endocarditis and hepatitis B antigen. Arch. Neurol. 37: 318, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Wheat, L. J., Kohler, R. B., White, A.: Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of staphylococcal antigen in serum of rabbits with endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus. J. Infect. Dis. 138: 174–180, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Burton-Kee, J., Morgan-Capner, P., Mowbray, J. F.: Nature of circulating immune complexes in infective endocarditis. J. Clin. Pathol. 33: 653–659, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Harkiss, G. D., Brown, D. L., Evans, D. B.: Longitudinal study of circulating immune complexes in a patient with Staphylococcus albus-induced shunt nephritis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 37: 228–238, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Bidani, A., Roberts, J., Schwartz, M., Lewis, E.: Immunopathology of cardiac lesions in fatal systemic lupus erythematosus. Am. J. Med. 69: 849–858, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Thong, L., Daha, M. R., Eulderink, F., Kooy-Bauer, W. C., Thompson, J.: Experimental Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis: Immune complexes and renal involvement. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 40: 469–477, 1980.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Kerr, A., Jr., Tan, T. S.: Biopsies of the Janeway lesions of infective endocarditis. J. Cutaneous Pathol. 6: 124–129, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Neimann, J. L., Godenir, J. P., Roche, G., Voirot, P.: Végétations mitrales obstructives aucours d’une endocardite bactérienne. Arch. Mal. Coeur Vaiss. 73: 1217–1222, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Kauffmann, R. H., Thompson, J., Valentijn, R. M., Daha, M. R., Van Es, L. A.: The clinical implications and the pathogenetic significance of circulating immune complexes in infective endocarditis. Am. J. Med. 71: 17–25, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence R. Freedman
    • 1
  1. 1.VA Wadsworth Medical CenterUCLA School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations