Ultrasound Diagnosis of Cerebro-Venous Flow Disturbances
Various ultrasound methods have been developed during the last decade for the diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases affecting the extra-cranial carotid and vertebral arteries, the major intracranial cerebral arteries at the base of the skull and intrathoracic segments of the innominate, carotid and vertebral arteries near the aorta. These methods have also been used for the detection of heart diseases like valve disorders and abnormal movements of the cardiac walls, and for the diagnosis of peripheral vascular diseases affecting the aorta, its major branches (eg, the renal arteries) and the limb vessels. Finally laser Doppler techniques have been used to study capillary microcirculation (Table 1). The major advantage of these methods is that they can be used for non-invasive investigations of vascular processes during treatment and in long-term prospective trials.
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