Advertisement

Brain Ischemic Depolarization and Vasospasm in the Mongolian Gerbil: The Dependence on Energy Depletion Levels

  • Avraham Mayevsky
  • Shlomo Cohen
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 277)

Abstract

The understanding of the various pathological events occuring in the ischemic brain of an animal model has significant implications to the treatment of patients undergoing stroke. One of the events that occurs under ischemia is the ischemic depolarization (ID) during which various pathological changes take place in the brain (Harris et al 1981, Hansen 1985, Siesjo and Bengtson 1989). The mechanism behind the development of ID is not clear as yet, although ion homeostasis disturbances are involved (Mori et al 1987). The inhibition of the Na+-K+-ATPase is energy depletion dependent, and an immediate response of the brain to ischemia (Erecinska & Silver 1989) will result in extracellular K+ accumulation. In the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones Unguiculatus), unilateral carotid artery occlusion creates a variable level of ischemia in the ipsilateral hemisphere (in different animals) while the contralateral side is not affected significantly (Levine and Payan 1966, Levy and Brierly 1974, Mayevsky 1978, Mayevsky and Breuer 1989).

Keywords

Mongolian Gerbil Carotid Artery Occlusion NADH Level Gerbil Brain Fiber Optic Bundle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Dora, E. and Zeuthen, T. (1976) Brain Metabolism and Ion Movements in the Brain Cortex of the Rat during Anoxia. In: Ion and Enzyme Electrodes in Biology and Medicine. M. Kessler, L.C. Clark, D.W. Lubbers, I.A. Silver and W. Simon, eds. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 294–298.Google Scholar
  2. Erecinska M. and Silver I.A. (1989) ATP and brain function. J. CBF and Metabol. 9:2–19.Google Scholar
  3. Friedli, C.M., Sclarsky, D.L. and Mayevsky, A. (1982) A New Multiprobe Assembly for Surface Monitoring of Ionic Metabolic and Electrical Activities in the Awake Brain. Am. J. Physiol. 243:R462–R469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hansen, A.J. (1985) The Effect of Anoxia on Ion Distribution in the Brain. Physiol. Rev. 65:101–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Harris, R.J., Symon, L., Branston, N. M. and Bayhan, M. (1981) Changes in extracellular calcium activity in cerebral ischemia. J. CBF and Metabol. 1:203–209.Google Scholar
  6. Leäo A.A.P. (1947) Further ovservations on the spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 10: 409–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Levine, S., and Payan, H. (1966) Effects of ischemia and other procedures on the brain and retina of the gerbil (Meiones unguiculatus). Exp. Neurol., 16:255–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Levy, D.E. and Brierley, J.B. (1974) Communications between verte- brobasilar and carotid arterial circulations in the gerbil. Exp. Neurol.45:503–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Marshall W.H. (1959) Spreading cortical depression of Leão. Physiol. Rev. 39:239–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Mayevsky, A. (1978) Pyridine nucleotide oxidation-reduction state of the cerebral cortex in the awake gerbil. J. Neurosci. Res. 3:369–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mayevsky, A. (1984) Brain NADH redox state monitored in vivo by fiber optic surface fluorometry. Brain. Res. Rev. 7:49–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mayevsky, A. and Chance, B. (1976) The Effect of Decapitation on the Oxidation Reduction State of NADH and ECoG in the Brain of the Awake Rat, In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue II. J. Grote, D. Reneau and G. Thews, eds. Plenum Pub. Corp. pp. 307–312.Google Scholar
  13. Mayevsky, A. and Zarchin, N. (1981) The effects of unilateral carotid Occlusion on the responses to decapitation in the gerbil brain. Brain Res. 206:155–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mayevsky, A. and Chance, B. (1982) Intracellular oxidation reduction state measured in situ by multichannel fiber-optic surface fluorometer. Science. 217:527–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mayevsky, A. and Zarchin, N. (1987) Metabolic ionic and electrical activities during and after incomplete or complete cerebral ischemia in the Mongolian gerbil. In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue IX, Silver, I.A. and Silver, A., eds). Plenum Publishing Corp. pp. 265–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mayevsky, A. and Breuer. (1989) The Mongolian gerbil as a model for cerebral Ischemia. In: Cerebral Ischemia and Cerebral Resuscitation. Schurr, A. and Rigor B.M. (Eds.). CRC (In press).Google Scholar
  17. Mayevsky, A., Friedli C.M. and Reivich, M. (1985) Metabolic, Ionic and Electrical Responses of Gerbil Brain to Ischemia. Am. J. Physiol. 17: R99–R107.Google Scholar
  18. Mori, K. Iwayama, K., Kawano, T. and Kaminogo, M. (1987) DC potential and extracellular K+ and Ca2+ at critical levels of brain ischemia in cats. J. CBF and Metabol. 7, Suppl. 1, S112Google Scholar
  19. Rosenthal, M. and Sick, T.J. (1988) Measurement of Metabolic Activity Associated with Ion Shifts In: Neuromethods; The Neuronal Microenvironment. A. A. Boulton, G.B. Baker and W. Walz, eds. The Humana Press pp. 187–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Siesjo, B.K. and Bengtson, F. (1989) Calcium fluxes, calcium anagonists and calcium related pathology in brain ischemia. J. CBF and Metabol. 9:127–140.Google Scholar
  21. Somjen, G.G., Rosenthal, M., Cordingley, G., LaManna, J. and Lothman, E. (1976) Potassium, Neuralgia and Oxidative Metabolism in Central Gray Matter. Fed. Proc. 35:1266–1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Vyskocil, F., Kriz, N. and Bures, J (1972) Potassium selective Microelectrodes used for Measuring Brain Potassium during Spreading Depression and Anoxic Depolarization in Rats. Brain Res. 39:255–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avraham Mayevsky
    • 2
  • Shlomo Cohen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Life SciencesBar Ilan UniversityRamat GanIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Biochem. and Biophys.Univ. of Penna.PhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations