Counter-Current Blood Flow in Tissues: Protection Against Adverse Effects

  • Hirosuke Kobayashi
  • Bernd Pelster
  • Johannes Piiper
  • Peter Scheid
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 277)


Histological studies indicate parallel arrangements of small arteries and veins as well as arterioles and venules in a number of tissues, such as kidney (cf. Solez and Heptin-stall, 1980), skin (Sparks, 1978), placenta (Barcroft and Barron, 1946), heart (Hutchins et al., 1986), and intestine (cf. Jodal and Lundgren, 1986). There exists also functional evidence for inert gas back-diffusion in counter-current blood flow in several tissues, such as muscle (Piiper et al., 1984; cf. Wagner, 1987), brain (Stosseck, 1970), and heart (Roth and Feigl, 1981). Effros et al. (1984) also observed counter-current diffusion of labeled n-butanol in the rabbit renal cortex.


Tissue Oxygenation Bohr Effect Fixed Acid Exchange Barrier Rabbit Renal Cortex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barcroft, J., and Barron, D. H., 1946, Observations on the form and relations of the maternal and fetal vessels in the placenta of the sheep, Ant. Rec., 94: 569–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Effros, R. M., Taki, K. Reid, E. Silverman, P., 1984, Countercurrent diffusion in the renal cortex of the rabbit, Circ. Res., 55: 463–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fänge, R., 1983, Gas exchange in fish swim bladder, Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol., 97: 111–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Groom, A. C., Plyley, M. J., and Sutherland, G., 1976, Oxygen transport in skeletal muscle: capillary geometry in longitudinal section, in: “Oxygen Transport to Tissue II”, J. Grote, D. Reneau and G. Thews, eds., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 685–692.Google Scholar
  5. Grossman, U., 1982, Simulation of combined transfer of oxygen and heat through the skin using a capillary-loop model, Mathematical Bioscience, 61: 205–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hutchins, G. M., More, G. W., and Hatton, E. V., 1986, Arterial-venous relationships in the human left ventricular myocardium: anatomic basis for countercurrent regulation of blood flow, Circulation, 74: 1195–1202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jodal, M., and Lundgren, O., 1986, Countercurrent mechanisms in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, Gastroenterology, 91: 225–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kelman, G. R., 1966, Digital computer subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation, J. Appl. Physiol., 21: 1375–1376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kiss, F., 1957, Funktionell-Morphologische Angaben zum venösen Kreislauf, Acta Anat., 30: 358–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kobayashi, H., Pelster, B., Piiper, J., and Scheid, P., 1989, Significance of the Bohr effect for tissue oxygenation in a model with counter-current blood flow, Respir. Physiol., 76: 277–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lübbers, D. W., 1968, The oxygen pressure field of the brain and its significance for the normal and critical oxygen supply of the brain, in: “Oxygen Transport in Blood and Tissue”, D. W. Lübbers, U. C. Luft, G. Thews, and E. Witzleb, eds, Georg Thieme, Stuttgart, pp. 124–139.Google Scholar
  12. McKay, C. B., and Lipowsky, H. H., 1988, Arteriovenous distribution of transit times in cremaster muscle of the rat, Microvasc. Res., 36: 75–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pelster, B., Kobayashi, H., and Scheid, P., 1989, Metabolism of the pefused swimbladder of the European eel: oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose and lactate balance, J. Exp. Biol., (in press).Google Scholar
  14. Piiper, J., 1987, Role of diffusion shunt in transfer of inert gases and O2 in muscle, in: “Oxygen Transport to Tissue X”, M. Mochizuki, C. R. Honig, T. Koyama, T. K. Goldstick, and D. F. Bruley, eds., Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 55–61.Google Scholar
  15. Piiper, J., Meyer, M., and Scheid, P., 1984, Dual role of diffusion in tissue gas exchange: blood-tissue equilibration and diffusion shunt, Respir. Physiol., 56: 131–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Roth, A. C., and Feigl, E. O., 1981, Diffusional shunting in the canine myocardium, Circ. Res., 48: 470–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Roth, A. C., and Wade, K., 1986, The effects of transmural transport in the microcirculation: a two gas species model, Microvasc. Res., 32: 64–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Scholander, P. F., and Van Dam, L., 1953, Composition of the swimbladder gas in deep sea fishes, Biol. Bull., 104: 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Solez, K., and Heptinstall, R. H., 1980, The anatomy of the renal circulation, in: “Structure and Function of the Circulation”, Vol. 1, C. J. Schwartz, N. T. Werthessen, and S. Wolf, eds., Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 631–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sparks, H. V. , 1978, Skin and muscle, in: “Peripheral Circulation”, D. C. Johnson, ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 193–230.Google Scholar
  21. Stosseck, K., 1970, Hydrogen exchange through the pial vessel wall and its meaning for the determination of the local cerebral blood flow, Pflügers Arch., 320: 111–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wagner, P. D., 1987, Peripheral inert-gas exchange, in: “Handbook of Physiology”, Section 3, The Respiratory System Vol. IV, Gas Exchange, L. E. Farhi and S. M. Tenney, eds., American Physiological Society, Bethesda, pp. 257–281.Google Scholar
  23. West, J. B., and Wagner, P. D., 1977, Pulmonary gas exchange, in: “Bioengineering Aspects of the Lung”, J. B. West, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 361–457.Google Scholar
  24. Wittenberg, J. B., and Haedrich, R. L., 1974, The choroid rete mirabile of the fish eye. II. Distribution and relation to the pseudobranch and to the swimbladder rete mirabile, Biol. Bull., 146: 137–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hirosuke Kobayashi
    • 1
  • Bernd Pelster
    • 2
  • Johannes Piiper
    • 3
  • Peter Scheid
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, School of MedicineKeio UniversityTokyo 160Japan
  2. 2.Institut für PhysiologieRuhr-Universität Bochum4630 BochumGermany
  3. 3.Abteilung PhysiologieMax-Planck-Institut für experimentelle Medizin3400 GöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations