Proton-NMR of Nuclei, Cell and Intact Tissue in Normal and Abnormal States: Significance of Relaxation Times as Correlated with Other Non-Invasive Biophysical Probes
In vivo Proton NMR imaging is becoming an increasingly popular tool in diagnostic medicine for its non-invasive nature and for its high resolution (1,2). In most clinical applications the 3-D reconstructed human images are based on local measurements of T1 and T2 proton relaxation times. Increases in these relaxation times in tumors (3) have been attributed to a change in the water concentration at the cytoplasmic and/or extracellular level (4) or to a change in the physical state of water (3,5). Similarly, during the cell cycle the variations in T1, i.e., its shortening during the Gl-S transcription (6), have been correlated with cellular changes in water concentration (7). More importantly, it has been found (7) that prior to mitosis an increase in relaxation times of water protons preceeds by 4 hours the increase in water concentration, suggesting that a change in the physical state of water may preceed cell division.
KeywordsRelaxation Time Partial Hepatectomy Free Induction Decay Intact Tissue Volumetric Fraction
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.L. Kaufman, A. Margulis, and L. Crooks, “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Medicine,” Igaku-Shoin, New York, (1981).Google Scholar
- 7.P. N. Rao, C. F. Hazelwood, and P. T. Beali, Cell cycle phase-specific changes in relaxation times and water content in HeLa cells, in: “Cell Growth,” C. Nicolini, ed., Plenum Riblishing Corporation, New York (1982).Google Scholar
- 8.W. Cramer, J. Physio. 50:322 (1961).Google Scholar
- 10.H. D. McEween and F. L. Haven, Cancer Res. 1:148 (1941).Google Scholar
- 11.M. Grattarola, P. Carlo, R. Viviani, and C. Nicolini, Early effects of chemical carcinogens as compared to induced cell proliferation. Automated image analysis, Bas. Appl. Histochern. 26:153 (1982).Google Scholar
- 12.P. Miller, W. Linden, and C. Nicolini, Biophysical studies of chromatin in situ and isolated after rat partial hepatectomy, Z. Naturforsch. 340:442 (1979).Google Scholar
- 13.C. Nicolini and F. Kendall, Differential light-scattering in native chromatin: Corrections and inferences combining melting and dye-bindning studies: two-order superhelical model, Physiol. Chem. Phys. 9:265 (1977).Google Scholar
- 15.C. Nicolini, Chromatin, Nuclei and Water: Alterations and Mechanisms for Chemically-induced Carcinogenesis, in: “Chemical Carcinogenesis,” C. Nicolini, ed., Plenum Rublishing Corporation, New York (1982).Google Scholar
- 16.C. Nicolini, “Biophysics and Cancer,” Plenum Riblishing Corporation, New York (1985).Google Scholar
- 19.B. A. Lashes, K. Ogawa, E. Roberts and E. Farber, Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, a positive marker for cultured rat liver cells derived from putative premalignant and malignant lesions, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 60:1009 (1978).Google Scholar