Advertisement

Diet and Chronic Degenerative Diseases

A Summary of Results from an Ecologic Study in Rural China
  • T. Colin Campbell
  • Junshi Chen

Abstract

In 1983, a cross-sectional survey of diet, lifestyle, and disease mortality characteristics was carried out in 130 villages located in 65 counties of rural China (1). A wide variety of characteristics were recorded, ultimately yielding 367 items of information on each of a total of 6500 adults aged 35–64 years (50 subjects/village, half of each sex).

Keywords

Dietary Fiber Plasma Cholesterol Natl Cancer Inst Stomach Cancer Iron Status 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chen J, Campbell TC, Li J, Peto R. Diet, Life-Style and Mortality in China. A Study of the Characteristics of 65 Chinese Counties. Oxford, UK; Ithaca, NY; Beijing, PRC: Oxford University Press; Cornell University Press; People’s Medical Publishing House, 1990.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Trowell HC, Burkitt DP. Western Diseases: Their Emergence and Prevention. London: EdwardArnold, 1981.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dumont R. Mes combats. Paris: Plön, 1989.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Walshe WH. The Nature and Treatment of Cancer. London: Taylor and Walton, 1846.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Connor TP, Campbell TC. Scientific evidence and explicit health claims in food advertisements. J Nutr Ed 1988; 20:87–92.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures—1989. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, Inc., 1989.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kinlen L. Fat and cancer. Br Med J 1983; 286:1081, 1082.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Willett W. Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Williams WR. The Natural History of Cancer, with Special References to Its Causation and Prevention. London: William Heinemann, 1908.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Staszewski J, Haenszel W. Cancer mortality among the Polish-born in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 1965; 35:291–297.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haenszel W, Kurihara M, Seig M, Lee RKC. Stomach cancer among Japanese in Hawaii. J Natl Cancer Inst 1972; 49: 968–988.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buell P. Changing incidence of breast cancer in Japanese-American women. JNatl Cancer Inst 1973; 51:1479–1483.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Higginson J, Muir CS. Environmental carcinogenesis: misconceptions and limitations to cancer control. J Natl Cancer Inst 1979; 63:1291–1298.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bertram J, Kolonel LN, Meyskens FL, Jr. Rationale and strategies for chemoprevention of cancer in humans. Cancer Res 1987; 47:3012–3031.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Population Census Offices. Atlas of China. Beijing: State Council of the People’s Republic of China and Institute of Geography of the Chinese Academy of Science, 1987.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li J-Y, Liu B-Q, Li G-Y, Chen Z-J, Sun X-D, Rong S-D. Atlas of cancer mortality in the People’s Republic of China. An aid for cancer control and research. Int JEpidemiol 1981; 10:127–133.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Committee on Diet Nutrition and Cancer. Diet, Nutrition and Cancer. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Campbell TC, Brun T, Chen J, Feng Z, Parpia B. Questioning riboflavin recommendations on the basis of a survey in China. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51:436–445.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Forman D, Sitas F, Newell DG, Stacey AR, Boreham J, Peto R, Campbell TC, Li J, Chen J. Geographic association of Helicobacter pylori antibody prevalence and gastric cancer mortality in rural China.Int J Cancer 1990; 46:608–611.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wenxun F, Parker R, Parpia B, Qu Y, Cassano P, Crawford M, Leyton J, Tian J, Li J, Chen J, Campbell TC. Erythrocyte fatty acids, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease in rural China. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52:1027–1036.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Campbell TC, Chen J, Liu C, Li J, Parpia B. Non-association of aflatoxin with primary liver cancer in a cross-sectional ecologic survey in the People’s Republic of China.Cancer Res 1990; 50:6882–6893.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Berge P, Parpia B, Chen J, Peto R, Campbell C, Armstrong D. Candida albicans, Nutritional Factors and Nasopharyngeal Cancer in The People’s Republic of China. Symposium Advances in Clinical Nutrition, Thirty-First Annual Meetings of the American College of Nutrition. Albuquerque, New Mexico: 1990.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mackay J. China’s Landmark Tobacco Law, a Memorandum. Asian Consultancy on Tobacco Control, Kowloon, Hong Kong, July 31, 1991.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Campbell TC, Chen J, Brun T, Parpia B, Qu Y, Chen C, Gerssler C. China: from diseases of poverty to diseases of affluence. Policy implications of the epidemiological transition.Ecol Food Nutr 1992; 27:133–144.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen J, Campbell TC. More meat does not mean better health. WorldHealth Forum 1991; 12:262–264.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen X, Chen J. Changes in Chinese diet a sign of the times. China Daily. Beijing, PRC. June 30, 1992; 4.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Knight J, Song L. The length of life and the standard of living: economic influences on premature death in China. J Devel Stud 1993; (in press).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    American Heart Association. Committee report, rationale for the diet-heart statement of the American Heart Association. Circulation 1982; 65:839A-854A.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    United States Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s Report on Nutrition and Health. Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, 1988.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    National Research Council, Committee on Diet and Health. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Peto R. Death from Cigarettes. Memorandum submitted to Chinese Ministry of Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, 1986.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hsing AW, Guo W, Chen J, Li J, Stone BJ, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF, Jr. Correlates of liver cancer in China. Int J Epidemiol 1990; 20:54–59.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kneller RW, Guo W-D, Hsing AW, Chen J, Blot WJ, Li J, Forman D, Fraumeni JF, Jr. Risk factors for stomach cancer in sixty-five Chinese counties. Cancer Epi Biomarkers Prev 1992; 1:113–118.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Key TJA, Chen J, Wang DY, Pike MC, Boreham J. Sex hormones in women in rural China and in Britain. Br J Cancer 1990; 62:631–636.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wang DY, Key TJA, Pike MC, Boreham J, Chen J. Serum hormone levels in British and rural Chinese females. Br Cancer Res Treatment 1991; 18:S41-S45.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Marshall JR, Qu Y, Chen J, Parpia B, Campbell TC. Additional ecologic evidence: lipids and breast cancer mortality among women age 55 and over in China. Eur J Cancer 1991; 28A:1720–1727.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chen X, Campbell TC. Sixty-Five County Reports on Public Health Prevention Strategies. Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, 1989.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Campbell TC. The role of nutrition in the aetiology of cancer and other degenerative diseases. In: Chen J, Campbell TC, Li J, Peto R, eds. Diet, Life-Style and Mortality in China. Oxford, UK; Ithaca, NY; Beijing, PRC: Oxford University Press; Cornell University Press; People’s Medical Publishing House, 1990; 54–66.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Intake Source Data: United States 1976–1980. Hyattsville, MD: National Health Survey, 1983.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Weight by Height and Age for Adults 18–75 Years. Publication no. PHS 79–1656. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1979.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhao X, Campbell TC, Parpia B, Chen J. Evaluation of dietary protein status in China. J Nutr 1992 (submitted).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Butrum RR, Clifford CK, Lanza E. NCI dietary guidelines: a rationale. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 48:888–895.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tao S, Huang Z, Wu X, Zhao B, Xiao Z, Hao J, Li Y, Cen R, Rao X. CHD and its risk factors in the People’s Republic of China. IntJEpidemiol 1989; 18:S159-S163.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cambien F, Ducimetiere P, Richard J. Total serum cholesterol and cancer mortality in a middle-aged male population. AmJEpidemiol 1980; 112:388–394.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Holme I. An analysis of randomized trials evaluating the effect of cholesterol reduction on total mortality and coronary heart disease incidence. Circulation 1990; 82:1916–1924.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Oliver MF. Serum cholesterol—the knave of hearts and the joker. Lancet 1981; ii:1090–1095.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldbourt U, Holtzman E, Nuefeld HN. Total and high- density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and risk of mortality: evidence of a threshold effect.Br Med J 1985; 290:1239–1243.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Taylor WC, Pass TM, Shepard DS, Komaroff AL. Cholesterol reduction and life expectancy: a model incorporating multiple risk factors. Ann Intern Med 1987; 106:605–614.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    International Collaborative Group. Circulating cholesterol level and risk of death from cancer in men aged 40 to 69 years.Campbell and Chen Experience of an international collaborative group. JAMA 1982; 248:2853–2859.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Knekt P, Reunanen A, Aromaa A, Heliovarra M, Hakulinen T, Hakama M. Serum cholesterol and risk of cancer in a cohort of 39,000 men and women. J Clin Epidemiol 1988; 41:519–530.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tornberg SA, Lars-Erik H, Carstensen JM, Eklund GA. Cancer incidence and cancer mortality in relation to serum cholesterol. JNatl CancerInst 1989; 81:1917–1921.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Aflatoxins. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1987.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Appleton BS, Campbell TC. Effect of high and low dietary protein on the dosing and postdosing periods of aflatoxin Bl- induced hepatic preneoplastic lesion development in the rat. CancerRes 1983; 43:2150–2154.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dunaif GE, Campbell TC. Relative contribution of dietary protein level and Aflatoxin Bl dose in generation of presumptive preneoplastic foci in rat liver. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987; 78:365–369.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Youngman LD, Campbell TC. Inhibition of aflatoxin Bl- induced gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase positive (GGT+) hepatic preneoplastic foci and tumors by low protein diets: evidence that altered GGT+ foci indicate neoplastic potential. Carcinogenesis 1992; 13:1607–1613.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chen Z, Keech A, Collins R, Slavin B, Chen J, Campbell TC, Peto R. Prolonged infection with hepatitis B virus: a factor contributing to the association between low blood cholesterol and liver cancer. Br Med J 1993; 306:890–894.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sherwin RW, Wentworth DN, Cutler JA, Hulley SB, Kuller LH, Stamler J. Serum cholesterol levels and cancer mortality in 361662 men screened for the multiple risk factor intervention trial. JAMA 1987; 257:943–948.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schatzkin A, Hoover RN, Taylor RR, Ziegler R, Carter L, Larson DB. Serum cholesterol and cancer in the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Lancet 1987; ii:298–301.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Isles CG, Hole FJ, Gillis CR, Hawthorne VW, Lever AF. Plasma cholesterol, coronary heart disease, and cancer in the Renfrew and Paisley survey. Br Med J 1989; 298:920–924.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Smith GD, Shipley M, Marmot MG, Rose G. Plasma cholesterol concentration and mortality—The Whitehall Study. JAMA 1992; 267:70–76.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Neaton JD, Blackburn H, Jacobs D, Kuller L, Lee D.-J., Sherwin R, Shih J, Stamler J, Wentworth D. Serum eholes-terol level and mortality: findings for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.Arch Intern Med 1992; 152:1490–1500.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Potischman N, McCulloch C, Byers T, Houghton L, Nemoto T, Graham S, Campbell TC. Associations between breast cancer, triglycerides and cholesterol.Nutr Cancer 1991; 15:205–216.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rose G, Blackburn H, Keys A. Colon cancer and blood cholesterol. Lancet 1974; i:181–183.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kagan A, McGee DL, Yano K, Rhoads GG, Nomura A. Serum cholesterol and mortality in a Japanese-American population. AmJEpidemiol 1981; 114:11–20.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kark JD, Smith AH, Hames CG. The relationship of serum cholesterol to the incidence of cancer in Evans County, Georgia. J Chronic Dis 1980; 33:311–322.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stemmermann GN, Nomura AMY, Heilbrun LK, Pollack ES, Kagan A. Serum cholesterol and colon cancer incidence in Hawaiian Japanese men. JNatl CancerInst 1981; 67:1179–1182.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    McMichael AJ, Jensen OM, Parkin DM, Zaridze DG. Dietary and endogenous cholesterol and human cancer. Epidemiol Revs 1984; 6:192–216.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rose G, Shipley MJ. Plasma lipids and mortality, a source of error. Lancet 1980; i:523–526.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Taylor YSM, Scrimshaw NS, Young VR. The relationship between serum urea levels and dietary nitrogen utilization in young men. Br J Nutr 1974; 32:407–411.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Peto R, Boreham J, Chen J, Li J, Campbell TC, Brun T. Plasma cholesterol, coronary heart disease, and cancer. Br Med J 1989; 298:1249.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mahley RW, Innerarity TL, Rail SCJ. Plasma lipoproteins: apolipoprotein structure and function. J Lipid Res 1984; 25:1277–1294.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture.Nutrition Monitoring in the United States: A Progress Report from the Joint Nutrition Monitoring Evaluation Committee. DHHS publication no. (PHS) 86–1255. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1986.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Food and Agriculture Organization. Food Balance Sheets, 1961–65 Average 1967 to 1977. Rome, Italy: FAO, 1980.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sirtori CR, Noseda G, Descovich GC. Studies on the use of a soybean protein diet for the management of human hyperlipoproteinemias. In: Gibney MJ, Kritchevsky D, eds. Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis. New York: Liss, 1983; 135–148.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pike MC, Krailo MD, Henderson BE, Casagrande JT, Hoel DG. ‘Hormonal’ risk factors, ‘breast tissue age’ and the age- incidence of breast cancer. Nature 1983; 303:767–770.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    MacMahon B. Incidence trends in North America, Japan, and Hawaii. In: Magnus K, ed. Trends in Cancer Incidence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982; 249–62.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hayward JL, Greenwood FC, Glober G, Stemmeman G, Bulbrook RD, Wang DY, Kumaokas S. Endocrine status in normal British, Japanese and Hawaiian-Japanese women. EurJCancer 1978; 14:1221–1228.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gray GE, Pike MC, Hirayama T, Tellez J, Gerkins V, Brown JB, Casagrande JT, Henderson BE. Diet and hormone profiles in teenage girls in four countries at different risk for breast cancer. Prev Med 1982; 11:108–113.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Goldin BR, Adlercreutz H, Gorbach SL, Woods MN, Dwyer JT, Conlon T, Bohn E, Gershoff SN. The relationships between estrogen levels and diets of Caucasian American and Oriental immigrant women. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 44:945–953.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bernstein L, Yuan JM, Ross RK, Pike MC, Hanisch R, Lobo R, Stanczyk F, Gao YT, Henderson BE. Serum hormone levels in pre-menopausal Chinese women in Shanghai and white women in Los Angeles: results from two breast cancer case- control studies. Cancer Causes Control 1990; 1:51–58.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rose DP, Boyar AP, Cohen L, Strong LE. Effect of a low-fat diet on hormone levels in women with cystic breast disease. I. Serum steroids and gonadotropins. JNatl CancerInst 1987; 78:623–626.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schultz TD, Howie BJ. In vitro binding of steroid hormones by natural and purified fibers. Nutr Cancer 1986; 8:141–147.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rose DP. Dietary fiber and breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 1990; 13:1–8.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hawrylewicz EJ, Huang HH, Kissane JQ, Drab EA. Enhancement of the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) mammary tumorigenesis by high dietary protein in rats. NutrReps Int 1982; 26:793–806.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hawrylewicz EJ, Huang HH, Liu J. Dietary protein enhancement of iV-nitroso-methylurea-induced mammary carcinogenesis, and their effect on hormone regulation in rats. Cancer Res 1986; 46:4395–4399.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hawrylewicz EJ, Huang HH, Blair WH. Dietary soybean isolate and methionine supplementation affect mammary tumor progression in rats. JNutr 1991; 121:1693–1698.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Huang HH, Hawrylewicz EJ, Kissane JQ, Drab EA. Effect of protein diet on release of prolactin and ovarian steroids in female rats. Nutr Rpts Int 1982; 26:807–820.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sanz MCA, Liu J-M, Huang HH, Hawrylewicz EJ. Effect of dietary protein on morphoplogic development of rat mammary gland. JNatl CancerInst 1986; 77:477–487.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals. Second revised edition, number 10. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    National Research Council. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Tenth edition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kopelman PG, Pilkington TRE, White N, Jeffcoate SL. Abnormal sex steroid secretion and binding in massively obese women. Clin Endocrinol 1980; 12:363–370.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bates GW, Whitworth NS. Effects of obesity on sex steroid metabolism. J Chron Dis 1982; 35:893–896.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wild RA, Umstot ES, Andersen RN, Ranney GB, Givens JR. Androgen parameters and their correlation with body weight in one hundred thirty-eight women thought to have hyperan-drogenism. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983; 146:602–606.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Moore JW, Clark GMG, Takatani O, Wakabayashi Y, Hayward JL, Bulbrook RD. Distribution of 17 ß-estradiol in the sera of normal British and Japanese women. JNatl Cancer Inst 1983; 71:749–754.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Moore JW, Key TJA, Bulbrook RD, Clark GMG, Allen DS, Wang DY, Pike MC. Sex hormone binding globulin and risk factors for breast cancer in a population of normal women who had never used exogenous sex hormones. Br J Cancer 1987; 56:661–666.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Armstrong BK, Brown JB, Clarke HT, Crooke DK, Hähnel R, Masarei JR, Ratajczak T. Diet and reproductive hormones: a study of vegetarian and nonvegetarian postmenopausal women. JNatl CancerInst 1981; 67:761–767.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fentiman IS, Caleffi M, Wang DY, Hampson SJ, Hoare SA, Clark GM, Moore JW, Brüning P, Bonfrer JM. The binding of blood-borne estrogens in normal vegetarian and omnivorous women and the risk of breast cancer.Nutr Cancer 1988; 11:101–106.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    McFadyen IJ, Forrest APM, Prescott RJ, Golder MP, Fahmy DR, Griffith SK. Circulating hormone concentrations in women with breast cancer. Lancet 1976; i(May 22, 1976): 1100–1102.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hill P, Garbaczewski L, Kasumi F. Plasma testosterone and breast cancer.Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1985; 21:1265,1266.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Secreto G, Recchione C, Cavalleri A, Miraglia M, Dati V. Circulating levels of testosterone, 17ß-oestradiol, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Br J Cancer 1983; 47:269–275.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Seereto G, Recchione C, Fariselli G, Di Pietro S. High testosterone and low progesterone circulating levels in premenopausal patients with hyperplasia and cancer of the breast. CancerRes 1984; 44:841–844.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Secreto G, Toniolo P, Pisani P, Recchione C, Cavalleri A, Fariselli G, Totis A, DiPietro S, Berrino F. Androgens and breast cancer in premenopausal women. CancerRes 1989; 49:471–476.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pike MC. Reducing breast cancer in women through lifestyle- mediated changes in hormone levels. CancerDetectPrev 1990; 14:595–607.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ. Regulation of energy balance. Ann Rev Nutr 1981; 1:235–256.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Campbell TC, Wang G, Chen J, Robertson J, Chao Z, Parpia B. Dietary fiber intake and colon cancer mortality in The People’s Republic of China. In: Kritchevsky D, Bonfield C, Anderson JW, eds. Dietary Fiber. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1990; 473–480.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Monsen ER, Hallberg L, Layrisse M, Hegsted DM, Cook JD, Mertz W, Finch CA. Estimation of available dietary iron. Am J Clin Nutr 1978; 31:134–141.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    von Dokkum W, Wesstra A, Schippers F. Physiological effects of fiber-rich types of bread. Br JNutr 1982; 47:451–460.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gillooly M, Bothwell TH, Torrance JD, MacPhail AP, Derman DP, Bezwoda WR, Mills W, Charlton RW. The effects of organic acids, phytates, and polyphenols on the absorption of iron from vegetables. BrJNutr 1983; 49:331–342.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    WHO (World Health Organization). Nutritional Anaemias. Report of a WHO Scientific Group. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1968.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). Requirements of Vitamin A, Iron, Folate and B12. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization, 1988.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bezwoda WR, Bothwell TH, Charlton RW, Torrance JD, MacPhail AP, Derman DP, Mayet F. The relative dietary importance of haem and non-haem iron. S Afr Med J 1983; 64:552–556.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Beard JL, Campbell TC, Chen J. Iron nutriture in the Cornell- China diet cancer survey. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 47(Abst. 56):771.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Beard JL, Wang G, Chen J, Campbell TC, Smith SM, Tobin B. Iron nutriture in the Cornell-China diet cancer study. J Nutr 1992; under review.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Guo W, Li J, Blot WJ, Hsing AW, Chen J, Fraumeni JF, Jr. Correlations of dietary intake and blood nutrient levels with esophageal cancer mortality in China. Nutr Cancer 1990; 13:121–127.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Campbell TC, Chen J, Parpia B, M. L. Diet and Cancer Mortality Rates in a Survey of 65 Counties in the People’s Republic of China: Vitamin Status Indicators. Pennington Conference on Cancer and Micronutrients. Baton Rouge, LA: 1992.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chen J, Geissler C, Parpia B, Li J, Campbell TC. Antioxidant status and cancer mortality in China. Int J Epidemiol 1992; 21:625–635.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nomura A. Stomach. In: Schottenfield D, Fraumeni JF, eds. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1982; 624–637.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    You WC, Blot WJ, Chang YS, Ershow AG, Yang ZT, An Q, Henderson B, Xu GW, Fraumeni JF, Jr, Wang TG. Diet and high risk of stomach cancer in Shandong, China. Cancer Res 1988; 48:3518–3523.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hu J, Zhang S, Jia E, Wang Q, Liu S, Liu Y, Wu Y, Cheng Y. Diet and cancer of the stomach: a case-control study in China. Int J Cancer 1988; 41:331–335.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Buiatti E, Palli D, Decarli A, Amadori D, Avellini C, Bianchi C, Bonaguri C, Cipriani F, Cocco P, Giacosa A, Marubini E, Minacei C, Puntoni R, Russo A, Vundigni C, Fraumeni JF, Jr, Blot WJ. A ease-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy: II. Association with nutrients. Int J Cancer 1990; 44:611–616.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Liu SH, Ohshima H, Bartsch H. Recent studies on iV-nitroso compounds as possible etiological factors in oesophageal cancer. In: O’Neill IK, Von Borstel RC, Miller CT, Long J, Bartsch H, eds. N-Nitroso Compounds: Occurrence, Biological Effects and Relevance to Human Cancer. Lyon, France: IARC Scientific Publication No. 57, 1984; 947–953.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Poirier S, Humbert A, de-The G, Ohshima H, Bourgade MC, Bartsch H. Occurrence of volatile nitrosamines in food samples collected in three high-risk areas of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In: Bartsch H, O’Neill IK, Schulte-Hermann R, eds. Relevance of N-Nitroso Compounds to Human Cancer: Exposures and Mechanisms. Lyon, France: IARC Scientific Publication No. 84, 1987; 415–419.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Dillard CJ, Tappel AL. Lipid peroxidation and copper toxicity in rats. Drug Chem Toxicol 1984; 7:477–487.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Simpson JA, Cheeseman KH, Smith SE, Dean RT. Free-radi- cal generation by copper ions and hydrogen peroxide. Stimulation by hepes buffer. Biochem J 1988; 254:519–523.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Orman JE, Talley NJ. Heliocobacterpylori: controversies and an approach to management. Mayo Clinic Proc 1990; 65: 414–426.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ, Tyzbir RS. Mechanisms of thermogenesis induced by low protein diets. Metabolism 1983; 32:257–261.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press, Totowa, NJ 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Colin Campbell
  • Junshi Chen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations