Advertisement

Middle Ultraviolet Irradiance at the Ocean Surface: Measurements and Models

  • Karen S. Baker
  • Raymond C. Smith
  • A. E. S. Green
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 7)

Abstract

Measurements of the downward spectral middle ultraviolet (MUV, 280–380 nm) irradiance E(O+,λθ) have been made just above the ocean surface in the central equatorial Pacific. These data were obtained for sun zenith angles in the range 12° to 70°. Analytic models have been fit to these data. The data and the models, their use and their limitations, will be summarized here.Most of this work including the data (Smith and Baker, 1980; hereafter referred to as SB) and the model(Baker et al. 1980; hereafter referred to as BSG) has been explored in detail in previously published works.

In order to work with analytic calculations dealing with irradiance underwater, it is necessary to be able to calculate the spectral irradiance incident on the surface in various ocean locations. For this purpose, E(0+,λ,θ) has been modeled as a function of wavelength, solar zenith angle, ozone thickness, aerosol thickness, and surface albedo.

Keywords

Zenith Angle Ocean Surface Solar Irradiance Surface Albedo Solar Zenith Angle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Rererences

  1. Anon. 1971. Solar Electromagnetic Radiation, NASA Space Vehicles Design Criteria. NASA, Washington, D. C. SP8005.Google Scholar
  2. Arvenson, J.C., R.N. Griffin, Jr., and B.D. Pearson, Jr. 1969. Determination of extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance from a research aircraft.App. Opt. 8: 2215 - 2232.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, K.S. and R.C. Smith. Bio-Optical classification and model of natural waters II. Limnol. Oceanogr. (In press)Google Scholar
  4. Baker, K.S., R.C. Smith, and A.E.S. Green. 1980. Middle ultraviolet radiation reaching the ocean surface. Photochem. Photobiol. 32: 367 - 374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braslau, N. and J.V. Dave. 1973. Effect of aerosols on the transfer of solar energy through realisticmodel atmosphere III ground level fluxes in the biologically active bands 0.2850-0.3700 microns. IBM Research Report, RC 4308.Google Scholar
  6. Broadfoot, A.L. 1972. The solar spectrum 2100-3200 angstrom. Astrophys. Journ. 173: 681 - 689.ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Dave, J.V. and P. Halpern. 1976. Effect of changes in ozone amount on the ultraviolet radiation received at sealevel of a model atmosphere. Atmos. Env. 10: 547 - 555.Google Scholar
  8. Donnelly, R.F., and J.H. Pope. 1973. NOAA Tech. Rep. ERL276-SEL, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  9. Green, A.E.S., K. R. Cross, and L. A. Smith. 1980. Im-Google Scholar
  10. proved analytic characterization of ultraviolet skylight. Photochem. Photobiol. 31:59-65.Google Scholar
  11. Green, A.E.S., T. Sawada, and E. P. Shettle. 1974. The middle ultraviolet reaching the ground. Photochem. Photobiol. 19: 251 - 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Heath, D. and H.W. Park. 1980. Amer. Geophys. Union Meeting, Toronto, personal communication.Google Scholar
  13. Johnson, F.S. 1954. The colar constant. J. Meteor. 2: 431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Labs, D., and H.L. Neckel. 1970. Transformation of the absolute total solar radiation data. Solar Physics 15: 79 - 87.Google Scholar
  15. Morel, A. and R. C. Smith, 1981. Terminology and units in optical oceanography. Mar. Geodesy.5 (4) Google Scholar
  16. Smith, R. C. and K. S. Baker. 1979. Penetration of UV-B and biologically dose rates effective in natural waters. Photochem. Photobiol. 29: 311 - 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Smith, R. C. and K.S. Baker. 1980. Middle ultraviolet irradiance measurements at the ocean surface. SIO Ref. Report No. 80 - 12.Google Scholar
  18. Smith, R. C., R.L. Ensminger, R.W. Austin, J.D. Bailey,and G.D. Edwards. 1979. Ultraviolet submersible spectroradiometer. S.P.I.E. Ocean Optics VI: 127 - 140.Google Scholar
  19. Smith, R.C., and J.E. Tyler. 1976. Transmission of solar radiation into natural waters. Photochem. Photobiol. Rev. 1, Plenum Press Pub. Co., N.Y. 117 - 155.Google Scholar
  20. Smith, R.C., J.E. Tyler and C.R. Goldman. 1973. Limnol. Oceanog. 18 (2): 189 - 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thekekara, M.P.1971. Solar electromagnetic radiation NASA SP-8005.Google Scholar
  22. White, O.R., [ed.] 1977. The solar output and its variations. Assoc. Univ. Press, Boulder, Colorado..Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen S. Baker
    • 1
  • Raymond C. Smith
    • 1
  • A. E. S. Green
    • 2
  1. 1.Scripps Institution of OceanographyUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations