Measuring Devices and Dosage Units
The choice of a system of units is ultimately an arbitrary agreement for the facilitation of communication among different investigators. It is evident that units appropriate for the measurement of biologically injurious exposure to solar UV should be available and comprehensible to workers in the field. Any decision regarding units requires very careful consideration; systems of units must be practical and useful as well as scientifically correct to receive general acceptance and avoid frequent changes of unit. Units for specialties may arise from the larger framework of units, i.e., the SI system. In particular, it would be most desirable if photobiological exposures could be expressed in the SI system as joules/m2; however, this is impossible and a unit incorporating biological factors is required.
KeywordsDosage Unit Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Wavelength Component Dosimetry System Biological Dosimetry
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Caldwell, M. M. 1971. Solar UV irradiation and the growth and development of higher plants. In Photophysiology, Vol. 7, 131–177. A. C. Giese [ed]. Academic Press, N. Y.Google Scholar
- Calkins, J. 1975. Effects of real and simulated solar UV-B in a variety of microorganisms–possible implications of elevated UV irradiance, CLAP Monogr. 1, [Eds. D. S. Nachtway, M. M. Caldwell, and R. H. Biggs], DOT TST 75–55, U. S. Dept. of Transportation, Washington, D. C., 5–33.Google Scholar
- Calkins, J., J. A. Barcelo, P. Grigsby and S. Martin. 1978. Studies of the role of solar ultraviolet radiation in “natural” water purification by aquatic ecosystems. Research Report 108, University of Kentucky Water Resources Institute, Lexington, Ky.Google Scholar
- Calkins, J. and Jeanne A. Barcelo. 1980. Some further considerations on the use of repair-defective organisms as biological dosimeters for broad-band ultraviolet radiation sources. Photochem. Photobiol. 3O: 733–737.Google Scholar
- Machta, L., G. Cotton, W. Hass, and W. Komhyr. 1975. Measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation. 3rd Ann. Meeting, American Society for Photobiology.Google Scholar
- Robertson, D. F. 1969. Long term field measurements of erythemally effective natural ultraviolet radiation. In Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation [F. Urbach, ed.], Pergamon Press, Oxford. 432–436.Google Scholar
- Scotto, S., T. R. Fears, and G. B. Gori. Measurement of ultraviolet radiation in the United States and comparison with skin cancer data. U. S. Department of Health Education and Welfare (NIH) 761029.Google Scholar
- Webb, R. B. 1977. Lethal and mutagenic effects of near-ultraviolet radiation. In Photochemical and Photo-biological Reviews, Vol. 2 [K. L. Smith, ed], Plenum Press, New York. 169–261.Google Scholar