Some Spectral Observations on Coking Lignites
Berkowitz(1) and Berkowitz and Schein(2) first drew attention to the abnormal properties of a hard black lignite from the Sharigh region of Pakistan. These properties included a low heat of wetting of about 5 cal/gm in methanol, a low inherent moisture content of 1.7%, and caking properties corresponding to a free swelling index (FSI) of 5 to 5½. Since these properties occurred in a coal with a carbon content of about 75% (moisture- and ash-free basis), they were considered atypical and were attributed in part to unusual tectonic conditions occurring in the early stages of the formation of coal. These were postulated to be of such a nature as to produce the low pore volume characteristic of the British medium volatile bituminous coals. Subsequently, Kreulen(3) examined another lignite from Rasa in Istria (Yugoslavia), and noted a high swelling index of 9, a low inherent moisture content, and a high sulfur content of 11.0%, again with a low carbon content of 74.8%. Kreulen drew attention to the fact that, if the carbon and sulfur contents are added together, the result, about 86%, is equal to the carbon content of “normal” high-swelling coals.
KeywordsElectron Spin Resonance Bituminous Coal Spectral Observation Narrow Signal Infrared Absorption Band
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