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Prostaglandin E2 Biosynthesis by Renomedullary Interstitial Cells

In Vitro Studies and Pathophysiological Correlations
  • Randall Mark Zusman

Abstract

In the past decade, there has been a virtual explosion in the number of publications dealing with the biochemistry and physiology of the prostaglandins. The recent discoveries of the thromboxanes (Hamberg et al., 1975) and of prostacyclin (Moncada et al., 1976) have added to the manifold studies of the metabolism of arachidonic acid (Fig. 1) to the prostaglandin (PG) endoperoxides PGG2 and PGH2 (Hamberg et al., 1974) and the subsequent synthesis of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) via thromboxane synthetase, an enzyme specifically inhibitable by imidazole (Needleman et al., 1976a,b, 1977a,b; of prostacyclin (PG12) via prostacyclin synthetase (Moncada et al., 1976; Needleman et al., 1977a,b), an enzyme inhibitable by 15-hydroperoxy arachidonic acid (Moncada and Vane, 1977; Needleman et al., 1978); and of PGE2 and PGF by isomerization and peroxidation (Karim, 1976a,b). The entire prostaglandin cascade is initiated by a cyclooxygenase that adds two molecules of oxygen to arachidonic acid, a 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid (Lands et al., 1974; Flower and Vane, 1974). This cyclooxygenase enzyme is inhibited by the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, such as indomethacin, ibuprofen, meclofenamic acid, and naproxen, and is specifically acetylated by acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (Rome and Lands, 1975; Pong and Levine, 1976; Lands and Rome, 1976).

Keywords

Arachidonic Acid Phospholipase Activity Arachidonic Acid Release PGE2 Release Prostaglandin Biosynthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randall Mark Zusman
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Cardiac and Hypertension Units, Medical ServicesMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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