Release of Superoxide Anion and Enhanced Candidacidal Activity as a Manifestation of Macrophage Activation: Studies with Muramyl Dipeptide

  • Nancy P. Cummings
  • Michael J. Pabst
  • Richard B. JohnstonJr.
  • P. Elsbach
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 141)


N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, or muramyl dipeptide (MDP), is a synthetic glycopeptide which has been formulated to correspond to a component found in a water-soluble extract of the cell wall of mycobacteria. It is the minimal structure that is capable of duplicating Freund’s complete adjuvant in the primary antibody response. 1,2 MDP added to in vitro systems stimulates a number of functions not necessarily related to the antibody response to specific antigens, such as release of pyrogens and lymphocyte activating factor from blood monocytes, enhanced collagenase and prostaglandin production from blood monocytes and mouse peritoneal cells, and inhibition of growth of mastocytoma cells.2,3


Phorbol Myristate Acetate Phorbol Myristate Acetate Lysosomal Hydrolase Muramyl Dipeptide Control Macrophage 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy P. Cummings
    • 1
  • Michael J. Pabst
    • 1
  • Richard B. JohnstonJr.
    • 1
  • P. Elsbach
  1. 1.National Jewish Hospital and Research Center and Departments of Pediatrics and BiochemistryUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineDenverUSA

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