Pulsed Radiofrequency Field Effects in Biological Systems
The possibility that pulsed fields produce biological responses other than those elicited by continuous-wave field of the same average power has been conjectured since the early years of research into the biological effect of radiofrequency (RF) energy. However, because of the limited availability of experimental results, few protection guides and exposure standards promulgated by various private organizations or governmental agencies attempted to specify limits to guard against potential hazards of pulsed radiofrequency fields. Indeed, available results have led some to conclude that there is no compelling evidence that pulsed microwave, of the type produced by radar transmitters, cause biological effects not found following exposure under conditions of continuous-wave radiation at the same average power density (Postow and Swicord, 1986). Nevertheless, the accumulation of recent experimental evidence on the biological effects of pulsed and modulated RF field suggests a need to put such interactions in a more meaningful context and a closer examination of the mechanism(s) of such interactions.
KeywordsPulse Width Peak Power Pulse Microwave Specific Absorption Rate Peak Power Density
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bernardi, P., Blasi, F., and D’Inzeo, G., 1984, Validita Delli Attuali Normative di Sicurezza Nei Riguardi di Esposizioni a Campi Elettromagnetici Transienti, Atti della V Riunione Nazionale di Elettromagnetismo Applicato, St. Vincent, 25–27.Google Scholar
- Creighton, M.O., Larsen, L.E., Stewart-DeHaan, P.J., Jacobi, J.H., Sanwal, M., Baskerville, J.C., Bassen, H.E., Brown, D.O. and Trevithick, J.R., 1987, Vitro Studies of Microwave-induced Cataract. II Comparison of Damage Observed for Continuous Wave and Pulsed Microwaves, Exp. Eye Res., 45: 357–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hjeresen, D.L., Doctor, S.R., and Sheldon, R.L., 1978, Shuttle Side Preference as Mediated by Pulsed Microwave and Conventional Auditory Cues, in: “Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems,” S.S. Stuchly, Ed., DUI, Edmonton, Canada, 194–214.Google Scholar
- Johnson, R.B., Meyers, D.E., Guy, A.W., Lovely, R.H. and Galambos, R., 1976, Discriminative Control of Appetitive Behavior by Pulsed Microwave Radiation in Rats, in: “Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves,” C.C. Johnson and M.L. Shore, Eds., HEW Publication (FDA) 77–8010, 238–247.Google Scholar
- Kryter, K.D., 1970, The Effects of Noise on Man, New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Lenox, R.H., Meyerhoff, J.L., Gandhi, O.P., and Wray, H.L., 1977, Regional Levels of Cyclic AMP in Rat Brain; Pitfalls of Microwave Interaction, J. Cyclic Nucleotide Res., 3: 367–379.Google Scholar
- Lin, J.C., 1978, Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications, C.C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.Google Scholar
- Lin, J.C., 1981, The Microwave Hearing Effect, in: “Biological Effects of Nonionizing Radiation,” K.H. Illinger, Ed., Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Milroy, W.C., O’Grady, T.C. and Prince, E.T., 1974, Electromagnetic Pulse Radiation: A Potential Health Hazard?, J. Microwave Power, 9: 213–218.Google Scholar
- Postow, E. and Swicord, M.L., 1986, Modulated Fields and Window Effects, in: “CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields,” C. Polk and E. Postow, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar