Eastern European RF Protection Guides and Rationales

  • Stanislaw Szmigielski


Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are the relatively new, but rapidly intensifying ecologic factors. For millions of years the biological life on the Earth has been developing and undergoing evolution under influence of complex natural EMFs generated by the external sun radiation and natural electric fields in the atmosphere. The exposure was relatively weak, as the natural EMF intensities does not exceed the order of 10-8–10-9 W/m2. The situation has changed however dramatically some 50 years ago with introduction of various devices generating microwaves (MWs) and radiofrequencies (RFs) first for communication and navigation and later for multiple industrial and household purposes. The steady increasing occupational groups and whole populations of people living in certain areas (e.g., close to power lines and stations, TV/Radio broadcasting antennas, air force bases,etc.) are continously being exposed to EMF intensities that by few magnitude orders exceed the natural fields of the Earth. At present only the second-third generation of human beings is exposed to artificially generated EMFs and the long-term effects of these exposures are still difficult for forecasting. Despite numerous experimental investigations and epidemiologic studies, it is still not possible to prove the existence and character of any specific molecular, cellular or system-related damage that may be evoked by long-term exposure in low-level EMFs.


Occupational Exposure Safety Level Occupational Safety Safety Criterion Exposure Zone 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanislaw Szmigielski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Effects of Non-ionizing RadiationsCenter for Radiobiology and Radiation SafetyWarsawPoland

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