Imaging Techniques in Pharmacology
The development of new drugs is increasingly based on a knowledge of membrane and cellular biochemistry, rather than screening large numbers of samples of soil, or toxins. These drugs are “designed”, rather than “discovered.” Following identification of a likely compound in-vitro, careful studies are performed in animal models to determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug. Once identified as safe and efficacious in animal trials, the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug is determined man. The clinical effects and side effects are then assessed in well controlled, multi-center studies involving large numbers of patients. The challenge to the clinician and pharmacologist participating in these studies has been to translate the exquisite measurements that can be made in animal models to the effective treatment of human disease, despite the lesser data base that can be gathered in man. Issues of dosing schedules, determination of tissue concentration, assessment of the pharmacodynamic effects of therapy, and the effects of therapy on normal and abnormal cell function are less easily assessed in man, because of the need for noninvasive methods.
KeywordsAngiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Renal Blood Flow Renal Artery Stenosis Aldose Reductase Chemical Shift Imaging
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