Interspecies Scaling in Pharmacokinetics

  • Kannan Krishnan
  • Melvin E. Andersen
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 221)


Scaling is the process of utilizing structural and functional features of one system as a basis to predict those of another. “Interspecies scaling in pharmacokinetics” signifies the prediction of in vivo chemical disposition behavior in untested species from the experimental observations made in one or more species. Interspecies scaling of the pharmacokinetic processes (i.e., uptake, distribution and clearance) of chemicals can be performed by (1) allometry and (2) physiological modeling. Whereas the allometric approach involves estimation of the pharmacokinetic parameters — clearance, half-life, volume of distribution etc. — in untested species based on their relationship to body mass in several test animal species, physiological modeling involves computer simulation of pharmacokinetics first, in one species, and then extrapolation to other species by scaling the appropriate critical biological determinants of disposition (e.g., blood flow rates, tissue volumes, rates of metabolism).


Blood Flow Rate Allometric Equation Intrinsic Clearance Physiological Modeling Pharmacokinetic Behavior 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kannan Krishnan
    • 1
  • Melvin E. Andersen
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical Industry Institute of ToxicologyResearch Triangle ParkUSA

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