Neuronal-Astrocytic Interactions in Brain Development, Brain Function and Brain Disease

  • Leif Hertz
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 296)


The purpose of this review is to discuss neuronal-astrocytic interactions which appear to be of major importance in development and function of the brain as well as in brain disease. Initially, the role of these interactions during development will be reviewed followed by a description of their role in normal brain function; finally, the possible importance of a breakdown of these interactions during disease processes will be discussed. However, before starting the description of these interactions, some of the current knowledge of astrocytic functions will be briefly reviewed.


Glial Cell Hepatic Encephalopathy Locus Coeruleus Cerebellar Granule Cell Glutamate Uptake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albrecht, J., Hilgier, W., Lazarewicz, J.W., Rafalowska, U., and Wysmyk-Cybula, U., 1988, Astrocytes in acute hepatic encephalopathy: Metabolic properties and transport functions, in: “The Biochemical Pathology of Astrocytes,” Norenberg M.D., Hertz, L., and Schousboe, A., eds., New York: Alan R. Liss, 465–476.Google Scholar
  2. Aoki, C., Joh, T.H., and Pickel, V.M., 1987, Ultrastructural localization of immunoreactivity for beta-adrenergic receptors in cortex and neostriatum of rat brain, Brain Res. 437: 264–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azmitia, E.C., Dolan, K. and Whitaker-Azmitia, P.M., 1990, S-100β but not NGF, EGF, insulin or calmodulin is a CNS serotonergic growth factor. Brain Res. 516: 354–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azmitia, E.C., and Whitaker-Azmitia, P.M., 1990, CNS 5-HT neurons and glial S-100β. Clin. Neuropharmacol. 13: 633–634.Google Scholar
  5. Balazs, R., Gallo, V. and Kingsbury, A., 1988, Effect of depolarization on the maturation of cerebellar granule cells in culture. Brain Res. 468: 269–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Balazs, R., Hack, N., and Jorgensen, O.S., 1990, Interactive effects of different classes of excitatory amino acid receptors and the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture, Int. J. Dev. Neurosci., 8: 347–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barres, B.A., Chun, L.L., and Corey, D.P., 1989, Calcium current in cortical astrocytes: induction by cAMP and neurotransmitters and permissive effect of serum factors. J. Neurosci, 9: 3169–3175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beaudet, A., and Descarries, L., 1984, Fine structure of monoamine axon terminals in cerebral cortex, in: “Monoamine Innervation of Cerebral Cortex,” L. Descarries, T.R. Reader, and H.H. Jasper, eds., Alan R. Liss, New York, 77–93.Google Scholar
  9. Benjamin, A.M. and Quastel, J.H., 1975, Metabolism of amino acids and ammonia in rat brain cortex slices in vitro: A possible role of ammonia in brain function. J. Neurochem. 25: 197–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowman, C.L., and Kimeiberg, H.K., 1988, Adrenergic-receptor-mediated depolarization of astrocytes, in: “Glial Cell Receptors,” H.K. Kimeiberg, ed., Raven, New York, 53–76.Google Scholar
  11. Brenneman, D.E., Neale, E.A., Foster, G.A., d’Autremont, S.W., and Westbrook, G.L., 1984, Non-neuronal cells mediate neurotrophic action of vasoactive intestinal peptide, J. Cell Biol., 104: 1603–1610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bures, J., Buresova, O., and Krivanek, J., 1974, The mechanism and applications of Leao’s spreading depression of electroencephalographic activity. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Buznikov, G.A., and Shmukler, Y.B., 1981, Possible role of “prenervous” neurotransmitters in cellular interactions of early embryogenesis, Neurochem. Res., 6: 55–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chan-Palay, V., and Asan, E., 1989, Alterations in catecholamine neurons of the locus coeruleus in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type and in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia and depression, J. Comp. Neurol. 287, 373–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Code, W.E., White, H.S., and Hertz, L., 1991, Midazolam effects on calcium signalling in astrocytes, submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  16. Coles, J.A., 1989, Functions of glial cells in the retina of the honeybee drone, Glia 2, 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooper, AJ.L. and Plum, F., 1987, Biochemistry and Physiology of brain ammonia. Physiol. Rev. 67, 440–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cornell-Bell, A.H., Finkbeiner, S.M., Cooper, M.S., and Smith, S.J., 1990, Glutamate induces calcium waves in cultured astrocytes: long-range glial signaling, Science, 247: 470–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cowburn, R.F., Hardy, J.A., and Roberts, P.J., 1990, Glutamatergic neurotransmission in Alzheimer’s disease. Biochem. Soc. Trans., 18: 390–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dani, J.W., Chernjavsky, A., and Smith, S.J., 1990, Calcium waves propagate through astrocyte networks in developing hippocampal brain slices. Abstracts, Soc. Neurosci. 16: 970.Google Scholar
  21. Dietzel, I., Heineman, U., and Lux, H.D., 1989, Relations between slow extracellular potential changes, glial potassium buffering, and electrolyte and cellular volume changes during neuronal hyperactivity in cat brain, Glia, 2: 25–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dismukes, K., 1977, New look at the aminergic neuron systems, Nature, 269: 557–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Enkvist, M.O., Holopainen, L, and Akerman, K.E., 1989, Glutamate receptor-linked changes in membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ in primary rat astrocytes. Glia, 2: 397–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fowler, C.J., O’Neill, C., Garlind, A., and Cowburn, R.F., 1990, Alzheimer’s disease: is there a problem beyond recognition? Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 11: 183–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fonnum, F., 1984, Glutamate: a neurotransmitter in mammalian brain, J. Neurochem., 42: 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Galambos, R., 1961, A glial-neuronal theory for brain function, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 47: 129–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grafe, P. and Ballanyi, K., 1987, Cellular mechanisms of potassium homeostasis in the mammalian nervous system. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 65: 1038–1042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gramsbergen, J.B., Mountjoy, C.Q., Rossor, M.N., Reynolds, G.P., and Korf, J., 1987, A correlative study on hippocampal cation shifts and amino acids and clinicopathological data in Alzheimer’s Disease, Neurobiol. Aging, 88: 487–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Griffin, W.S., Stanley, L.C., Ling, C., White, L., MacLeod, V., Perrot, L.J., White, C.L. and Araoz, C., 1989, Brain interleukin 1 and β 100 immunoreactivity are elevated in Down’s Syndrome and Alzheimer’s Disease. Proc. Nat. Sci. US Acd., 86: 7611–7615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hansson and Ronnback, 1988a, Neurons from substantia nigra increase the efficacy and potency of second messenger arising from striatal astroglia dopamine receptor, Glia, 1: 393–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hansson, E., and Ronnback, L., 1988b, Regulation of glutamate and GABA transport by adrenoceptors in primary astroglial cell cultures, Life Sci., 44: 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harik, S.I., Mitchell, M.J. and Kalaria, R.N., 1989, Ouabain binding in the human brain. Effects of Alzheimer’s disease and aging. Arch. Neurol., 46: 951–954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harris, R.J., and Symon, L., 1984, Extracellular pH, potassium and calcium activities in progressive ischemia of rat cortex, J. Cereb. Blood Flow & Met., 4: 178–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hartman, B.K., Swanson, L.W., Raichle, M.E., Preskorn, S.H., and Clark, H.B., 1979, Central adrenergic regulation of cerebral microvascular permeability and blood flow: anatomic and physiologic evidence, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 131: 113–126.Google Scholar
  35. Hatten, M.E., 1985, Neuronal regulation of astroglial morphology and proliferation in vitro. J. Cell. Biol. 100, 384–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Haxby, J.V., Grandy, C.L., Koss, E., Horwitz, B., Heston, L., Schapiro, M., Friedland, R.P., and Rapoport, S.I., 1990, Longitudinal study of cerebral metabolic asymmetries and associated neuropsychological patterns in early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Arch. Neurol., 47: 753–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hertz, L., 1965, Possible role of neuroglia: A potassium-mediated neuronal-neuroglial-neuronal impulse transmission system, Nature, 206: 1091–1094.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hertz, L., Neuronal-glial interactions, 1989a, in: “Regulatory Mechanisms of Neurons to Vessel Communication in Brain,” S. Govoni, G. Battaini and M.S. Mangoni, eds., Springer, Heidelberg, 271–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hertz, L., 1989b, Is Alzheimer’s Disease an anterograde neuronal-glial degeneration, originating in the brain stem, and disrupting metabolic and functional interactions between neurons and glial cells? Brain Res.Rev., 14: 335–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hertz, L., 1990a, Regulation of potassium homeostasis by glial cells, in: “Development and Function of Glial Cells,” G. Levi, ed., Alan R. Liss, N.Y., 225–234.Google Scholar
  41. Hertz, L., 1990b, Dibutyryl cyclic AMP treatment of astrocytes in primary cultures as a substitute for normal morphogenic and “functiogenic” transmitter signals, in: “Molecular Aspects of Development and Aging in the Nervous System,” A. Privat, E. Giacobini, P. Timiras and A. Vernadakis, eds., Plenum, NY, 227–243.Google Scholar
  42. Hertz, L., and Franck, G., 1978, Effect of increased potassium concentrations on potassium fluxes in brain slices and in glial cells, in: “Dynamic Properties of Glial Cells”, E. Schoffeniels, G. Franck, L. Hertz, and D.B. Tower, eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 383–388.Google Scholar
  43. Hertz, L., and Richardson, J.S., 1983, Acute and chronic effects of antidepressant drugs on β-adrenergic function in astrocytes in primary cultures — an indication of glial involvement in affective disorders? J. Neurosci. Res., 9: 173–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hertz, L., and Schousboe, A., 1986, Role of astrocytes in compartmentation of amino acid and energy metabolism, in: “Astrocytes,” S. Fedoroff, and A. Vernadakis, eds., Academic Press, New York, 2: 179–208.Google Scholar
  45. Hertz, L. and Schousboe, A., 1987, Primary cultures of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons as model systems to study neurotransmitter functions. I. Differentiated cells. in: “Model Systems of Development and Aging of the Nervous System”, A. Vernadakis, A. Privat, J.M. Lauder, P.S. Timiras and E. Giacobini, eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Mass., 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hertz, L., and Schousboe, A., 1988, Metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in neurons and astrocytes in primary cultures, in: “Glutamine and Glutamate in Mammals,” E. Kvamme, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., 2: 39–55.Google Scholar
  47. Hertz, L., Murthy, Ch.R.K., Lai, J.C.K., Fitzpatrick, S.M., and Cooper, A.J.L., 1987, Some metabolic effects of ammonia on astrocytes and neurons in primary cultures, Neurochem. Pathol., 6: 97–129.Google Scholar
  48. Hertz, L., Bender, A.S., Woodbury, D., and White, H.S., 1989a, Potassium induced calcium uptake in astrocytes and its potent inhibition by a calcium channel blocker, J. Neurosci. Res., 22: 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hertz, L., Peng, L., Hertz, E., Juurlink, B.H.J., and Yu, P.H., 1989b, Development of monoamine oxidase activity and monoamine effects on glutamate release in cerebellar neurons and astrocytes, Neurochem. Res., 1039–1096.Google Scholar
  50. Hertz, L., Code, W.E., Shokeir, O., Shargool, M., Woodbury, D.M., and White, M.S., 1991, Calcium signalling in astrocytes, in: “Neuroglial Function,” A.I. Roitbak, ed., Tbilisi, USSR.Google Scholar
  51. Hogstad, S., Svenneby, G., Torgner, I.Aa., Kvamme, E., Hertz, L., and Schousboe, A., 1988, Glutaminase in neurons and astrocytes cultured from mouse brain: Kinetic properties and effects of phosphate, glutamate and ammonia, Neurochem. Res., 13: 383–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hyden, H., 1959, Quantitative assay of compounds in isolated, fresh nerve cells and glial cells from control and stimulated animals, Nature, 184: 433–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hyden, H., and McEwen, B., 1966, A glial protein specific for the nervous system, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 55: 354–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Janis, R.A., Silver, P.J., and Triggle, D.J., 1987, Drug action and cellular calcium function, Adv. Drug Res., 16:309–591.Google Scholar
  55. Joo, F., 1983, The blood-brain barrier in vitro: Ten years of research on microvessels isolated from the brain, Neurochem., 7: 1–25.Google Scholar
  56. Kalaria, R.N., Stockmeier, C.A., and Harik, S.I., 1989a, Brain microvessels are innervated by locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons, Neurosci. Lett., 97: 203–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kalaria, R.N., and Harik, S.I., 1989, Reduced glucose transporter at the blood-brain barrier and in cerebral cortex in Alzheimer’s disease. J. Neurochem. 53: 1083–1086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kaufman, E.G. and Driscoll, B.F., 1990, The effect of [K+] on CO2 fixation in cultured glial cells. Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem. 21: 289.Google Scholar
  59. Kihara, M., and Kubo, T., 1989, Aspartate aminotransferase for synthesis of transmitter glutamate in the medulla oblongata: effect of aminooxyacetic acid and 2-oxoglutarate, J. Neurochem., 52: 1127–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kuffler, S.W., 1967, Neuroglial cells: Physiological properties and a potassium mediated effect of neuronal activity on the glial membrane potential, Proc. R. Soc. Series B, 168: 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lauder, J.M., 1987, Neurotransmitters as morphogenetic signals and trophic factors, in: “Model Systems of Development and Aging of the Nervous System,” Vernadakis, A., Privat, A., Lauder, J.M., Timiras, P.S. and Giacobini, E., eds, Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, 219–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lauder, J.M., 1988, Neurotransmitters as morphogens. Prog. Brain Res. 73: 365–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lazarewicz, J.W., Kanje, M., Sellstrom, A., and Hamberger, A., 1977, Calcium fluxes in cultured and bulk isolated neuronal and glial cells. J. Neurochem. 29: 495–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leibowitz, D.H., 1990, A glial cytocal wave is the conduction velocity-determining propagation mechanism of spreading depression, Abstracts, Soc. Neurosci., 16: 970.Google Scholar
  65. Lowe, S.L. and Bowen, D.M., 1990, Glutamic acid concentration in brains of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease, Biochem. Soc. Trans., 18, 443–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Mac Vicar, B.A., 1984, Voltage-dependent calcium channels in glial cells, Science, 226: 1345–1347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Manier, D.H., Sulser, F., 1990, Chronic exposure of rat glioma C cells to oxaprotiline reduces the density of beta adrenoceptors, Abstracts, Soc. Neurosci., 16: 385.Google Scholar
  68. Mattson, M.P., 1988, Neurotransmitters in the regulation of neuronal cytoarchitecture, Brain Res., Rev., 13: 179–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Meier, E., Hertz, L., and Schousboe, A., 1991, Neurotransmitters as developmental signals, Neurochem. Int., in press.Google Scholar
  70. Miller, R.J., 1987, Multiple calcium channels and neuronal function, Science, 235: 46–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mobley, P.L., Scott, S.L., and Cruz, E.G., 1986, Protein kinase C in astrocytes: a determinant of cell morphology, Brain Res., 398: 366–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moller, M., Mollgard, K., Lund-Andersen, H., and Hertz, L., 1974, Concordance between morphological and biochemical estimates of fluid spaces in rat brain cortex slices, Exp. Brain Res., 21: 299–314.Google Scholar
  73. Narumi, S., Kimelberg, H.K., and Bourke, R.S., 1978, Effects of norepinephrine on the morphology and some enzyme activities of primary monolayer cultures from rat brain, J. Neurochem., 31, 1479–1490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Norenberg, M.D., and Martinez-Hernandez, A., 1979, Fine structural localization of glutamine synthetase in astrocytes of rat brain, Brain Res., 161: 303–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Orkand, R.K., Nicholls, J.G., and Kuffler, S.W., 1966, Effect of nerve impulses on the membrane potential of glial cells in the central nervous system of amphibia, J. Neurophysiol., 29: 788–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Palaiologos, G., Hertz, L., and Schousboe, A., 1989, Role of aspartate amino-transferase and mitochondrial dicarboxylate transport for release of endogenously and exogenously supplied neurotransmitter in glutamatergic neurons, Neurochem. Res., 14: 359–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Palmer, A.M. and Gershon, S., 1990, Is the neuronal basis of Alzheimer’s disease cholinergic or glutamatergic? FASEB J., 4: 2745–2752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Pasternack, J.M., Abraham, C.R., Van Dyke, B.J., Potter, H., and Younkin, S.G., 1989, Astrocytes in Alzheimer’s disease gray matter express alpha 1-antichymotrypsin mRNA, Am. J., Pathol., 135: 827–834.Google Scholar
  79. Patel, A.J., Hunt, A., Gordon, R.D., and Balazs, R., 1982, The activities in different neural cell types of certain enzymes associated with the metabolic compartmentation of glutamate. Dev. Brain. Res. 4, 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Peng, L., Schousboe, A., and Hertz, L., 1990, Utilization of alpha-ketoglutarate as a precursor for transmitter glutamate in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Neurochem. Res., in press.Google Scholar
  81. Peng, L., Juurlink, B.H.J., and Hertz, L., 1991, Development of cerebellar granule cells in the presence and absence of excess extracellular potassium — Do the two culture system provide a means of distinguishing between events in transmitter-related and non-transmitter-related glutamate pools?, Brain Res., submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  82. Petito, C.K., and Babiak, T., 1982, Early proliferative changes in astrocytes in postischemic noninfarcted rat brain. Ann. Neurol. 11:510–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Petito, C., Juurlink, B.H.J., and Hertz, L., 1991, An in vitro model differentiating between direct and indirect effects of ischemia on astrocytes, Exp. Neurol., in press.Google Scholar
  84. Piccinin, G.L., Finali, G., and Picirilli, M., 1990, Neuropsychological effects of L-deprenyl in Alzheimer’s type dementia. Clin. Neuropharmacol., 13: 147–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Procter, A.W., Palmer, A.M., Stratman, G.C., and Bowen, D.M., 1986, Glutamate aspartate-releasing neurons in Alzheimer’s Disease, N. Eng. J. Med., 314: 1711–1712.Google Scholar
  86. Ramon y Cajal, S., 1909, Histologie du systeme nerveux de l’homme et des vertébrés.Google Scholar
  87. Rapoport, S.I., Horwitz, B., Haxby, J.V., and Grady, C.L., 1986, Alzheimer’s Disease: metabolic uncoupling of associative brain regions, Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 13: 540–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Reichelt, W., Dettmer, D., Bruckner, G., Brust, P., Eberhardt, W., and Reichenbach, A., 1989, Potassium as a signal for both proliferation and differentiation of rabbit retina (Muller) glia growing in cell culture. Cell Signal, 1:187–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rossor, M.N., 1981, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease as disorders of the isodendritic core, Br. Med. J., 283: 1588–1590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Salm, A.K. and McCarthy, K.D. Norepinephrine-evoked calcium transients in cultured cerebral type 1 astroglia. Glia 3: 529–538 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Savaki, H.E., Kadekaro, M., McCulloch, J., and Sokoloff, L., 1982, The central noradrenergic system in the rat: metabolic mapping with alpha-adrenergic blocking agents. Brain Res., 234: 65–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schlue, W.R. and Wuttke, W., 1983, Potassium activity in leech neuropile glial cells changes with external potassium concentration. Brain Res., 270, 368–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schmitt, F.O., 1984, Molecular regulators of brain function: a new view, Neurosci., 13: 991–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schousboe, A., Hertz, L., Svenneby, G., and Kvamme, E., 1979, Phosphate activated glutaminase activity and glutamine uptake in astrocytes in primary cultures, J. Neurochem., 32: 943–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schousboe, A., Drejer, J., and Hertz, L., 1988, Uptake and release of glutamate and glutamine in neurons and astrocytes in primary cultures, in: “Glutamine and Glutamate in Mammals,” E. Kvamme, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl, 2: 21–38.Google Scholar
  96. Shank, R.P., and Aprison, M.H., 1988, Glutamate as a neurotransmitter, in: “Glutamine and Glutamate in Mammals,” E Kvamme, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl, 2: 3–19.Google Scholar
  97. Shank, R.P., and Campbell, G.leM., 1984, α-Ketoglutarate and malate uptake and metabolism by synaptosomes: Further evidence for an astrocyte to neuron metabolic shuttle, J. Neurochem., 42: 1153–1161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Shank, R.P., Bennett, G.S., Freytag, S.D., and Campbell, G.L., 1985, Pyruvate carboxylase: an astrocyte-specific enzyme implicated in the replenishment of amino acid neurotransmitter pools, Brain Res., 329: 364–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Skattebol, A., and Triggle, D.J., 1987, 45Ca2+ uptake in rat brain neurons: absence of sensitivity to the Ca2+ channel ligands nitrendipine and Bay K 8644. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 65: 344–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sochocka, E., Code, W.E., Shuaib, A., and Hertz, L., 1991, Effects of ischemia on cultured neurons and astrocytes, Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem., 22, in press.Google Scholar
  101. Stone, E.A., and Ariano, M.A., 1989, Are glial cells targets of the central noradrenergic system? A review of the evidence, Brain Res. Rev., 14: 297–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Subbarao, K., and Hertz, L., 1990, Effects of adrenergic agonists on glycogenosis in primary cultures of astrocytes, Brain Res., in pressGoogle Scholar
  103. Subbarao, K.V., and Hertz, L., 1991, Stimulation of energy metabolism in astrocytes by adrenergic agonists, J. Neurosci.Res., in press.Google Scholar
  104. Sykova, E., 1983, Extracellular K+ accumulation in the central nervous system, Prog. Biophys. Molec. Biol. 42: 135–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tariot, P.N., Sunderland, T., Weingartner, H., Murphy, D.L., Welkowitz, J.A., Thompson, K., and Cohen, R.M., 1987, Cognitive effects of L-deprenyl in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacol., 91: 489–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tas, P.W.L., Massa, P.T., Kress, H.G. and Koschel, K., 1987, Characterization of a Na+/K+/Cl- co-transport in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Bichim. Biophys. Acta. 903,411–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Turner, T.J., and Goldin, S.M., 1988, Do dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels play a role in neurosecretion in the central nervous system? Ann. NY Acad, Sci., 522: 278–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Van den Berg, C.J. and Garfinkel, D., 1971, A simulation study of brain compartments. Metabolism of glutamate and related substances in mouse brain. Biochem. J. 123, 211–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Walz, W., 1989, Role of glial cells in the regulation of the brain ion microenvironment. Progress in Neurobiology 33, 309–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Walz, W., and Hertz, L., 1983, Functional interactions between neurons and astrocytes. II. Potassium homeostasis at the cellular level, Progr. Neurobiol., 20: 133–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Walz, W. and Hertz, L., 1984, Intense furosemide-sensitive potassium accumulation into astrocytes in the presence of pathologically high extracellular potassium levels. J. Cerebr. Blood Flow & Metab. 4: 301–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Whitaker-Azmitia, P.M. and Azmitia, E.C., 1989, Stimulation of astroglial serotonin receptors produces culture media which regulates growth of serotonergic neurons. Brain Res. 497: 80–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Young, M.A., Vatner, D.E., Knight, D.R., Graham, R.M., Homey, C.J., and Vatner, S.F., 1988, α-Adrenergic vasoconstriction and receptor subtypes in large coronary arteries of calves. Am. J. Physiol., 255: H1452–H1459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Yu, A.C.H., and Hertz, L., 1983, Metabolic sources of energy in astrocytes, in: “Glutamine, Glutamate and GABA in the Central Nervous System,” L. Hertz, E. Kvamme, E.G. McGeer, and A. Schousboe, eds., Alan R. Liss, NY, 431–439.Google Scholar
  115. Yu, A.C.H., Schousboe, A., and Hertz, L., 1982, Metabolic fate of (14C)-labelled glutamate in astrocytes, J. Neurochem., 39: 954–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yu, A.C.H., Drejer, J., Hertz, L., and Schousboe, A., 1983, Pyruvate carboxylase activity in primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons, J. Neurochem., 41: 1484–1487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yu, A.C., Gregory, G.A., and Chan, P.H., 1989, Hypoxia-induced dysfunctions and injury of astrocytes in primary cell cultures. J. Cereb. Blood Flow & Metab. 9: 20–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yudkoff, M., Nissim, I., Hummeler, K., Medow, M., and Pleasure, D., 1986, Utilization of (15N)-glutamate by cultured astrocytes, Biochem. J., 234: 185–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Yudkoff, M., Nissim, I., and Hertz, L., 1990, Precursors of glutamic acid nitrogen in primary neuronal cultures: studies with 15N. Neurochem. Res., in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leif Hertz
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Pharmacology and AnaesthesiaUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations