A General Introduction to the Link between Redox Reactions and Proton Gradients

  • R. J. P. Williams
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 7)


Since 1961 when Williams (1) and Mitchell (2) put forward the ideas concerning redox reactions in mitochondria and their relationship to proton gradients there has been an effort to resolve a series of related problems. (a) How do the reducing equivalents, i.e. initially hydride and then the electron, migrate in the membrane? (b) How and where do the redox reactions generate protons? (c) How do the protons migrate? (d) What are the coupling mechanisms? There has also been a major discussion concerning localised and delocalised events in this series of reactions to which I return later but this is only one mechanistic problem. I take the above questions in turn since they are all important at the plasma membrane (3), see Fig.1.


Redox Reaction Redox Enzyme Electron Transfer Protein Copper Oxygen Helical Protein 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. P. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Inorganic Chemistry LaboratoryUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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