The Application of Ray Methods to Wave Refraction Studies

  • I. M. Townend
  • I. A. Savell
Part of the Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies book series (COASTAL, volume 12)


In offshore and coastal engineering studies one of the prime data requirements is an accurate description of the wave climate at the site of the study. Such data is rarely available, as the collection of wave data is a lengthy and expensive business and requires at least one year’s advance warning of the data requirement. If data is available, it will only refer to the location of the recorder, which may be located at some distance from the site for operational reasons. Where data is not available, data from a remote site or hindcast data must be used. In any of these cases there is a requirement for the available data to be modified to reflect the differences between conditions at the data site and those at the study site.


Wave Height Wave Breaking Wave Direction Bottom Friction Wave Climate 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. M. Townend
    • 1
  • I. A. Savell
    • 1
  1. 1.Halcrow Maritime Offshore and EnergySwindon, WiltshireUK

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