Synthesis and Release of Amino Acid Transmitters

  • F. Fonnum
  • R. H. Paulsen
  • V. M. Fosse
  • B. Engelsen
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 203)


GABA, glutamate and aspartate are considered as strong neurotransmitter candidates in mammalian brain. The metabolism of the three amino acids are coupled in a complex pattern (Fonnum, 1985). Glutamate is ubiquitously distributed in brain tissue. It occupies an important position as excitatory neurotransmitter, in brain metabolism and as precursor for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This implies that glutamate is compartmentalized in brain and present in a transmitter pool, in a neuronal metabolic pool, in a glial pool and in a GABAergic terminal pool. Aspartate is closely related metabolically and chemically to glutamate. Due to the low level of oxaloacetate in brain (van den Berg and Garfinkel, 1971), the equilibrium between glutamate, aspartate, oxaloacetate and 2-oxoglutarate may change with the metabolic status of the animal.


Glutamine Synthetase Kainic Acid Gaba Synthesis Intrastriatal Injection Amino Acid Transmitter 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Fonnum
    • 1
  • R. H. Paulsen
    • 1
  • V. M. Fosse
    • 1
  • B. Engelsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Division for Environmental ToxicologyNorwegian Defense Research EstablishmentKjellerNorway

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